This exercise is designed to correlate with and reinforce endocrine system knowledge gained in lecture. It is usually helpful for you to have your textbook in lab, to help identify glands on models and diagrams, to help you discern the histology of select glands, and to help you answer questions about specific hormones, their targets, and their actions. You are expected to read the current week’s lab handout before arriving in lab; often there simply isn’t enough time in our 2 hr labs to thoroughly review concepts and conduct the lab activities. Plan to also spend several hours per week, minimum, in open lab sessions. All information presented in the lab handouts, as well as all questions in the handout pertaining to the day’s activities are fair game as future test questions.
The basic format for this and future labs is a brief recap of the day’s topics and goals (which you should already have familiarized yourselves with before class), including experimental protocols that we will employ in lab. Following this introduction, you will work in groups of 2-4 students and collaborate on the assigned topics. It’s a good idea to quiz one another periodically. Your lab instructor is there to facilitate your learning, but not to lecture to you. He/she will be available to answer questions only after you and your group have discussed and have made a concerted effort to come up with the answer, and cannot do so or remain confused on the topic. Consider your instructor to be a last resort resource person and not the first person that you turn to for an answer. Your laboratory instructor will periodically circulate and ask you questions about the material under study. Self-motivated mastery of the subject will stay with you much longer than simple memorization of answers given to you.
Endocrine System Learning Goals Overview:
1) Be able to locate and identify all assigned endocrine glands on anatomical models and charts, and, where applicable, on the cadaver.
2) Be able to identify and differentiate histological (i.e., microscopic) sections of the pituitary gland, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, ovary, and testes. Be able to identify specific regions, structures, and cell types contained within these glands, and describe the hormones that are produced and/or released from these specific locales.
3) Describe the specific hormones produced by all assigned endocrine glands, the physiological stimuli that causes their release, their target organs, and their primary effects on target tissues. You should be extremely familiar with the table of hormones on page 645 (Table 17.4) and pages 657-658 (Table 17.5); this will prove essential for both laboratory and lecture success.
4) Be able to describe pathological states that occur with abnormal secretion of select hormones (Section 17.7, pp.671-676 in text).
Part I. Gland Gross Anatomy: Torso Model, Skull and Brain
Torso model: All the structures may not be visible on every model, but you will find all of them on at least one or more of the models. Locate these structures: Pituitary gland, adrenal gland, thyroid/parathyroid glands, pancreas, pineal gland, kidney, testes, ovaries, liver, and mammary glands. Skull: Locate the sella turcica on the floor of the sphenoid bone. What two-part endocrine organ lies in this indented pocket (sella turcica means “Turkish saddle” Brain: Review the location of the hypothalamus, pituitary gland (usually torn off during brain removal, but you should know its general location—models will help), and the general location of the pineal gland (again, models will be helpful).
Part II. Endocrine Glands of the Female Cadaver
Try to locate the pancreas, kidneys, adrenal glands, thyroid gland, ovaries, liver, mammary glands, and uterus on the female cadaver.
Identify a kidney. What hormone from the posterior pituitary gland increases water permeability of the collecting ducts…