Neolithic Revolution Essay

Submitted By ddewitt
Words: 1010
Pages: 5

Guided Reading 1
“The Origins of Agriculture to the First River-Valley Civilizations”
1. Culture: Socially transmitted patterns of actions and expression. Cultures include material objects, such as dwellings, clothing, tools, and crafts, along with nonmaterial values, beliefs, and languages. 2. Foragers: Hunting and food gathering people. 3. Animal domestication: Taming animals 4. Pastoralism: Branches of farms; Concerned with raising livestock 5. Matrilinail: Descending through the mother 6. Megaliths: “Big Stones” 7. Civilization: Human cultures that are complex in terms of technology, science, and division of labor 8. Babylonian Creation Myth: Sumer writing on tablet 9. City-State: A self-governing urban center and the agricultural territories it controlled 10. Lugal: Sumerian cuneiform sign for leader 11. Cuneiform: Stylized combinations of strokes and wedges 12. Dynasty: a sequence of rulers considered members of the same family 13. Hammurabi’s Law Code: Reflects social divisions that may have been valid for other places and times despite inevitable fluctuations 14. Scribe: An administrator or scholar charged by the temple or palace with reading and writing tasks 15. Anthropomorphic gods: is any attribution of human characteristics to other animals, non-living things, phenomena, material states, objects, or abstract concepts 16. Ziggurat: A multistory, mud-brick, pyramid shaped tower approached by ramps and stairs 17. Amulets: Small charms meant to protect the bearer from evil 18. Technology: Comes from Greek word techne, meaning skill or specialized knowledge 19. Cataract: A large water fall 20. Pharaoh: A ruler in Ancient Egypt 21. Ma’at: The divinely authorized order of the universe 22. Pyramid: A monumental structure with a square or a triangular base and slopping sides that meet in a point at the top
The Great Pyramid: Oldest and largest pyramid 23. The Old Kingdom: (2700 BCE-2200 BCE)
Middle Kingdom: ( 2100 BCE- 1800 BCE)
New Kingdom: (1500 BCE – 1000 BCE) 24. Hieroglyphics: symbols 25. Rosetta Stone: Western mouth of Nile1799; a key to some previously undecipherable mystery 26. Papyrus: a material prepared in ancient Egypt from the pithy stem of a water plant 27. Mummy/mummification: a condition resembling that of a mummy
28. Sumerians: written record beginning with Sumarians and marks the division by some definitions between prehistory and history 29. Semites: possibly the descendants of nomads from the desert west of Mesopotamia 30. Hammurabi: 1792-1750 BCE; Initiates a series of aggressive military campaigns 31. Menes: there from the South
32. Lascaux: Caves in Southwest France containing Paleolithic symbols 33. Catal Huyuk: largest and best preserved Neolithic settlement 34. Mesopotamia: modern-day Iraq means land between the river is located on the Fertile Crescent 35. The Fertile Crescent: Contains moist and Fertile land 36. Nile Delta: Formed in Lower Egypt 37. Upper Egypt: Southern, stretched to Syene
Lower Egypt: Northern, Nile stretches into different branches (more populated) 38. Memphis: Lower Egypt, 3000 BCE, Pharoah Menes 39. Thebes: Ancient Egypt located on the eastern banks of the Nile River 40. Harappa and Mohenjo – Daro: 2600 BCE, Indus Valley Civilization
41. The Great Ice Age: Long periods when glaciers covered much of North America Europe and Asia , 2 million people, total after= 50 – 100 million as population 42. Stone Age: Subdivisions: Paleolithic and Neolithic Era 43. Paleolithic Era: “Old Stone Age”; primary tool is stone 44. Neolithic Era: Neo- new Lithic- stone; end of the Ice Age, increase in population 45. Agricultural Revolutions: Emphasizes the central role of food production and signals the changeover occurred several times