Central Nervous System Study Guide

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Study Guide Chapters 1-6:
Central Nervous System
Peripheral Nervous System
Brainstem: Medulla, Pons, Midbrain and tegmental vs. non-tegmental
Neuron: structure, axon, dendrite, synapse, myelin sheath, nodes of Ranvier
Sensory = afferent
Motor = efferent
Descriptors: anterior/posterior; dorsal/ventral; superior/inferior; proximal/distal; medial/ lateral
Sections: coronal, sagittal, horizontal
Resting potential, graded potential, action potential
Oligodendroglia, Schwann cells
Unipolar vs. Bipolar vs. Multipolar
Ventricular system: know all parts and where they are located; CSF
Cerebellum: folia, cerebellar peduncles, arbor vitae, flocculonodular lobe, anterior lobe and posterior lobe, vermis, functions, afferent and efferent pathways
Gyri, sulci
Central sulcus, median longitudinal fissure, lateral fissure, transverse fissure
Frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital lobes
Cerebral cortex: grey matter vs. white matter; 6 layers of neocortex
Corpus callosum
Pyramids of medulla
Corpora quadrigemina: inferior colliculi and superior colliculi
Diencephalon: thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland lateral geniculate body, medial geniculate body
Brodmann’s areas 4; 3,1,2; 41, 42; 44, 45; 40; 39; 17; 18, 19
Blood supply: vertebral and carotid systems; Circle of Willis
Spinal cord organization
Five regions of the spinal cord
Dorsal root = sensory
Ventral root = motor
Spinal cord ascending tracts: Dorsal columns (info re: fine touch, pressure, proprioception), Lateral and Anterior Spinothalamic tracts (info re: pain, temp, diffuse touch), Spinocerebellar tract (info re: proprioception to cerebellum)…know crossover points
Stereognosis and graphesthesia
Spinal cord descending tracts: Lateral and Anterior Corticospinal tracts, Corticobulbar tract, Rubrospinal tract, Vestibulospinal tract
Lower motor neurons and final common pathway
Twelve cranial nerves: know each one, whether it is sensory, motor or mixed and a significant task each one performs
Reticular Formation: function of and where located
Corpora Quadrigemina: what is it and where located
Thalamus: functions;