Student Resource Glossary
Adrenocorticotropic A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that mediates the release of hormones from the hormone (ACTH) adrenal cortex. Increased and decreased secretions of ACTH have been associated with a various disorders and disease states.
(sensory nerves) Convey incoming messages from the sensory receptors to the central nervous system. Agyria
A congenital disorder in which the normal gyri and sulci of the brain fail to develop. Believed to occur between the third and fourth month of gestation.
Literally "almond," because of its shape has a specific role in fear conditioning and impacts the strength of stored memory.
A congenital condition characterized by a failure in development of the two hemispheres, mesencephalon, and diencephalon of the brain. The brain is represented by a vascular mass. The condition produces severe neurologic deficits and is incompatible with life.
Problems in word finding. Only a word or two, here and there, is lost, and the communication can proceed pretty much as normal. In more severe cases, most or all words can be lost.
Toward the front or front end.
Anterior cerebral artery Resulting from half of the division of an internal carotid artery, it supplies the anterior medial portion of its corresponding cerebral hemisphere.
Anterior commissure Minor intercerebral fibers.
Anterior communicating artery
Connects the left and right anterior cerebral arteries.
Arises from the left ventricle of the heart.
Arachnoid granulations Small "pockets" of cauliflowerlike veins within the subarachnoid space, which serve as pathways for the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid to be absorbed and reenter the venous circulation.
Arachnoid membrane A "spiderlike" avascular membrane of the meninges.
The sprouting and branching of dendrites during brain development.
Autonomic nervous Provides the "automatic" neural control of internal organs (such as heart, intestines). Most system (ANS) autonomic organs receive both sympathetic and parasympathetic input.
Also called the basal nuclei deep nuclei of the telencephalon. Structures include the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nuclei. Important relay stations in motor behavior (for example, the striatopallidothalamic loop). Coordinate stereotyped postural and reflexive motor activity.
Also called the basal ganglia deep nuclei of the telencephalon. Structures include the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nuclei. Important relay stations in motor behavior (for example, the striatopallidothalamic loop). Coordinate stereotyped postural and reflexive motor activity.
Formed from a joining of the two vertebral arteries at the level of the brainstem.
Anatomic circuit centered around the amygdala its most likely role is in emotional processing.
Evolutionary old brain structure involved in regulating brain activation. It emerges from the uppermost portion of the spinal cord and includes all the subdivisions below the telencephalon (that is, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the metencephalon, and the myelencephalon), except for the cerebellum.
Toward the rear, away from the head.
Structure of the basal ganglia.
Central nervous system (CNS)
The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord. It is located within and protected by the bony cavities of the skull and the spine.
Student Resource Glossary
Cerebellar peduncles Large neural tracts connecting the cerebellum to the midbrain.
Means "little brain" sits posterior to the brainstem and…