Neurology Glossary Essay

Submitted By Jing-Mi
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1/31/2015

Student Resource Glossary

Glossary
Chapter 5
Adrenocorticotropic A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that mediates the release of hormones from the hormone (ACTH) adrenal cortex. Increased and decreased secretions of ACTH have been associated with a various disorders and disease states.
Afferent nerves

(sensory nerves) Convey incoming messages from the sensory receptors to the central nervous system. Agyria

A congenital disorder in which the normal gyri and sulci of the brain fail to develop. Believed to occur between the third and fourth month of gestation.

Amygdala

Literally "almond," because of its shape has a specific role in fear conditioning and impacts the strength of stored memory.

Anencephaly

A congenital condition characterized by a failure in development of the two hemispheres, mesencephalon, and diencephalon of the brain. The brain is represented by a vascular mass. The condition produces severe neurologic deficits and is incompatible with life.

Anomia

Problems in word finding. Only a word or two, here and there, is lost, and the communication can proceed pretty much as normal. In more severe cases, most or all words can be lost.

Anterior

Toward the front or front end.

Anterior cerebral artery Resulting from half of the division of an internal carotid artery, it supplies the anterior medial portion of its corresponding cerebral hemisphere.

Anterior commissure Minor intercerebral fibers.

Anterior communicating artery

Connects the left and right anterior cerebral arteries.

Aortic arch

Arises from the left ventricle of the heart.

Arachnoid granulations Small "pockets" of cauliflowerlike veins within the subarachnoid space, which serve as pathways for the subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid to be absorbed and re­enter the venous circulation.

Arachnoid membrane A "spiderlike" avascular membrane of the meninges.

Arborization

The sprouting and branching of dendrites during brain development.

Autonomic nervous Provides the "automatic" neural control of internal organs (such as heart, intestines). Most system (ANS) autonomic organs receive both sympathetic and parasympathetic input.
Basal ganglia

Also called the basal nuclei deep nuclei of the telencephalon. Structures include the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nuclei. Important relay stations in motor behavior (for example, the striato­pallidothalamic loop). Coordinate stereotyped postural and reflexive motor activity.

Basal nuclei

Also called the basal ganglia deep nuclei of the telencephalon. Structures include the caudate nucleus, putamen, globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and subthalamic nuclei. Important relay stations in motor behavior (for example, the striato­pallidothalamic loop). Coordinate stereotyped postural and reflexive motor activity.

Basilar artery

Formed from a joining of the two vertebral arteries at the level of the brainstem.

Basolateral circuit

Anatomic circuit centered around the amygdala its most likely role is in emotional processing.

Brainstem

Evolutionary old brain structure involved in regulating brain activation. It emerges from the uppermost portion of the spinal cord and includes all the subdivisions below the telencephalon (that is, the diencephalon, the mesencephalon, the metencephalon, and the myelencephalon), except for the cerebellum.

Caudal

Toward the rear, away from the head.

Caudate nucleus

Structure of the basal ganglia.

Central nervous system (CNS)

The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord. It is located within and protected by the bony cavities of the skull and the spine.

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1/31/2015

Student Resource Glossary

Cerebellar peduncles Large neural tracts connecting the cerebellum to the midbrain.

Cerebellum

Means "little brain" sits posterior to the brainstem and…