New Frontiers: America and the Moon More than five hundred years ago, Spanish sailors captained by Christopher Columbus embarked on a voyage across the Atlantic to discover a whole new part of the world we now know as the Americas. Several decades ago, NASA deployed ships under the Apollo Program to a new world as well: Earth’s moon. Although hundreds of years worth of time and technological advancement divide the voyages of Christopher Columbus and the Apollo astronauts, there exists a striking correlation. Three ships under command of Christopher Columbus, named Pinta, Niña, and Santa Maria, departed the Spanish mainland on August 3rd, 1492. After final preparations on the Canary Islands, the voyage began. These vessels were charged by the king and queen of Spain to explore uncharted waters and the possibility of unclaimed land on the other side of the world. An undertaking of such magnitude had never before been completed, and proved challenging given the speed and technology of 15th century ships, partly due to miscalculations of Earth’s actual size. The Apollo Program, dedicated to President Kennedy, was given the goal of “landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to Earth,” before the end of the 1960’s (Rosenberg). Much like Columbus and his sailors set about to a new world, the Apollo astronauts were tasked with travelling to a very unique place of their own. At the time of Kennedy’s proposal in 1961, NASA had not yet sent a man into orbit, much less the moon. Unsurprisingly, the operation required a sudden burst of technological and intellectual creativity, along with the largest commitment of resources ever made by any nation during peacetime -- an effort relative to that of Columbus centuries earlier. Even NASA recognized the similarities. Apollo 13 controllers used the code “1492” to access their private rest area (Woodfill). Christopher Columbus and his three ships departed Europe from the Canary Islands, around the latitude line marking twenty-eight degrees north, on what turned out to be a five-week-long voyage. During the entirety of the voyage, Columbus’ ships sailed in a pattern which closely resembled a figure-eight. By happenstance they discovered and were carried by the tradewinds, which would later be incorporated into all means of transportation across the Atlantic (Christopher Columbus). Coincidentally, the launch site of the Apollo missions happened to fall on the exact same degree of latitude where Columbus’ mission originated. Further, the first Apollo missions carved a figure-eight pattern in the ocean of space, a template that was used by all Apollo spacecraft. On an even more compelling note, Apollo’s flight director was named Christopher Columbus Kraft (Woodfill). Is it a result of fate or only plain accordance that each voyage had a captain with an identical moniker to the other? Taking a turn for the worse, Santa Maria ran aground and was lost on Christmas eve, 1492, off the coast of Hispaniola. This left Columbus standing in need of a way to return home with more men than capacity to carry them. He called forth ingenuity and improvised a settlement out of Santa Maria’s remains and left thirty-nine men behind to occupy it (Minster). The accident prevailed as a somewhat fortunate misfortune for Columbus and his crew, considering rescue would have been nigh impossible if the ship had instead wrecked in open sea or without the assistance of the other ships. Christopher himself attributed the successful rescue to his Christian faith, after calling upon prayer for guidance (Woodfill). In comparison to Santa Maria, Apollo 13 suffered a fatal catastrophe as…
Name: Tiara Baker
Introduction: We as Americans are now at a time where our country is at its weakest point ever. Our economy is a major deficit and simple everyday expenses are becoming unaffordable to manage. We are no longer the number one country for democracy, and America is slowly falling behind other major competitive countries. As an American citizen I encourage, the rest of you to help empower our county by creating a new and improved United States Constitution…
In Economics, the production possibility frontier is a curve or a boundary that represents the point at which an economy is most efficiently producing its goods and services. It usually shows the combinations of two or more goods and services that can be produced whilst using all the available factor resources efficiently.
Combinations of output of goods X and Y lying inside the PPF occur when there are unemployed resources or when the economy uses resources inefficiently. In the diagram above,…
Chapter 3- Subject Matter, Methods and the Making of a New Science
-Can the (mind, soul, consciousness) ever be study scientifically?
William James –psychology as a Natural Science.
Immanuel Kant- noumenal /phenomenal world, the mind structures our experiences.
* “Intuitions”- time and space, 12 categories in the mind that organize phenomena.
* Can’t study one’s own mind.
* 3 figures who took up Kant’s challenge of making psychology mathematical were Johann…
Chapter 1: New World Beginnings
1. The First Discoveries of America
* Ice age accounted for continents human history
* 35,000 years ago, glaciers, lower sea level
* Land bridge connecting Eurasia (due to low sea level)
* Across land bridge: herds of game, nomadic hunters
* These nomads or “Native Americans” trekked across North and South America for 250 centuries
* Ice aged ended slowly, glaciers melted (10,000 years ago)
* No more land bridge…
Applying Theories to Children’s Literature
The story Goodnight Moon that was written in 1947, by Margaret Wise Brown, is a story that was meant for bed time for children. It targets children ranging from 2 – 4 years old. This is the age they are in their preoperational stage as they are not independent in case of understanding the story but will be assisted by others and would need to be attracted…
Although some suggest Frederick Jackson Turner’s “frontier thesis” holds truth in the fact that the frontiers moved westward steadily, others disagree that the actual settlement of the west was not steady. There are certain events that prove Turner’s thesis unstable such as the homestead act and individualism.
In his thesis Turner chooses to ignore the Native Americans that were living on the land saying it was “free land”. The Native Americans were forced out of their homes as the settlers and…
for Truth, One Giant Tumble for Conspiracists
On July 20, 1969, one small step for man was taken, and a giant leap for mankind was made and recorded in the history books when Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin became the first men to ever walk on the moon, and return to earth with the first samples from another planetary body.1 Also on this day, the United States had finally won the Space Race against the Soviet Union.2 Since the United States won the pace race, they became less interested in lunar…
i love my life
Bermuda), Central America, the Caribbean, and Guyana from 1607 to 1783. Formally, the British Colonies in North America were known as British America and the British West Indies until 1776, when the Thirteen British Colonies located along the Atlantic seaboard declared their independence and formed the United States of America. After that, British North America (or, simply but not inclusively, Canada) was used to describe the remainder of Britain's…
The new wave of Addiction in America
Addiction is something almost everyone in the world can relate to, especially Americans. Addiction is prevalent in almost every society, but it seems that in America one has more opportunity to become addicted to substance being as we are one of the wealthiest nations on this planet. One of the quickest and easiest ways to get addicted to a substance is experimenting with prescription pills. Though other illegal drugs may be more addictive, or have more harmful…
The Myth of the Frontier and Neighboring Natives
Ursurla L. Waller
HIS 204: American History Since 1865
Instructor Jessica Schmidt
2015 January 8
The Myth of the Frontier and Neighboring Natives
Movement towards the Great West, known as, "the existence of an area of free land." fortified a boundary line that runs between savagery and civilization. Populated and seized by the Europeans in continental areas bordering the United States of America, the Western Movement began after…