APUSH Summer Assignment Mr. Hodgson
Part I: Textbook
Chapter I: New World Beginnings
Christopher Columbus: An Italian explorer who discovered the “New World” while he was trying to reach India with his theory that the Earth is round.
Renaissance: The period of time after the Middle Ages in Europe when there was a rebirth of art and science.
Mestizo: The race of people created when the Spanish intermarried with the surviving Native Americans in Mexico.
Treaty of Tordesillas: In 1494 Spain and Portugal were disputing the lands of the new world, so the Spanish went to the Pope, and he divided the land of South America for them. Spain got the vast majority, the west, and Portugal got the east.
Conquistador: Spanish explorers who invaded Central and South America.
Giovanni da Verrazano: An Italian mariner sent by the French to explore the eastern seaboard in 1524.
Iroquois Confederacy: A group that bound together five Indian nations- the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Cayugas, and the Senecas.
St. Augustine, Florida: The oldest continually inhabited European settlement in the future United States.
Ecosystem: The fragile, naturally evolved networks of relations among organisms in a stable environment.
Encomienda: A technique that allowed the government to give Indians to certain colonists in return for the promise to try to Christianize them.
1. Now that the United States is so affected by Mexican and Latin American cultures and customs, the pre-histories of the areas are being seen in a different light, with more emphasis on how they developed to their current point and how they were affected by and affected Europeans and the United States. This should now be considered American History only to the extent that it affected American History. Since the heavier influence from the areas is very recent, the past sections of American history should only be altered to include areas where a substantial influence by a Mexican or Latin American person, country, or custom is present.
2. The Old World was able to easily dominate the New World due to their advanced technologies, allowing them greater power, their more powerful political structures, allowing them greater organization, and their immunity to diseases that they brought, which killed many of the natives. The strengths of the new world were efficient farming systems and great knowledge of astronomical entities, while their weaknesses were a lack of advanced technology such as that of the old world. The strengths of the old world were technological inventions such as the printing press, which allowed for the quick spread of ideas during times such as the Renaissance, and the astrolabe, which allowed for better nautical navigation, while its weaknesses were a decreasing amount of raw materials for use in production of goods.
Chapter II: The Planting of English America
Pocahontas: The daughter of Powhatan who was one of the first Native Americans to go back to England with her husband, John Rolfe.
Powhatan: The father of Pocahontas and the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy.
John Rolfe: The husband of Pocahontas, and Englishman who was a colonist in the early settlement of Virginia.
Lord Baltimore: The founder of Maryland which offered religious freedom and a refuge for the persecuted Roman Catholics.
Walter Raleigh: An English explorer who sponsored the first colony in America on Roanoke Island in present day North Carolina, also known as the “lost colony”.
James Ogelthorpe: The founder of Georgia in 1733 who started it for people in debt.
Humpfrey Gilbert: The promoter of the first English attempt at colonization.
Oliver Cromwell: An Englishman who led the army and