New Zealand: The Gallipoli Campaign Essay

Submitted By Campbell-McVicar
Words: 2096
Pages: 9

Introduction
New Zealand began its long and treacherous path towards Gallipoli with the outbreak of World War I in 1914, between the Allies and Central Powers.
War on the Western Front had reached a stalemate and William Massey, New Zealand Prime Minister at the time, Pledged New Zealand's support as part of the British Empire and set about raising a military force for service overseas.

The Gallipoli Campaign had a significant effect on New Zealanders. New Zealand first joined the war because of the British involvement in the war and that we wanted to show our loyalty to the British Empire because at this stage of New Zealand's development, New Zealand was highly dependent on Britain. Because of the British Empires size and wealth, keeping an alliance with them was essential and helping the British in their efforts in the war would keep the bond between the two countries strong so that the British would continue to protect New Zealand.
In late October 1914, the Ottoman Empire (Germany) entered the war, siding with the Central Powers (Germany, Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary). This strategically changed the situation in the Middle East, where Central Powers forces proposed a direct threat to the Suez Canal, a Vital British shipping lane between Europe and Asia. Britain took a precautionary measure in stationing Australian and New Zealand expeditionary forces In Egypt to partake in their training, and they helped British forces flight off an attack by the Ottoman Empire on the Suez Canal. Because War had reached a stalemate on the Western Front and the Suez Canal was a risky chance to take for the allies, the British Empire turned its attention to the Dardanelles Strait on the Gallipoli Peninsula, Turkey. The Dardanelles Strait in the Allies Powers eyes would control the sea route from Europe to Russia. Which commenced the Gallipoli Campaign.

The New Zealand Expeditionary force's wait in Egypt was ended in early 1915, when it was transported to the Greek Island of Lemnos to organise for the invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula. The Peninsula was an important land feature because it leads to the Dardanelles Strait, Which leads to the Sea of Maramara and via the Bosporus, the Black Sea. The Allied plan of attack was to breach the straits and capture the Ottoman capital, Constantinople (Istanbul). This would gain the Allied Forces access and a supply line to Russia, as well as an opportunity to launch an attack on the Central Powers. Outline The Campaign

The Gallipoli Campaign of 1915-16, also known as the Battle of Gallipoli, was an unsuccessful attempt by the Allied Powers to control the sea route from Europe to Russia during World War I. The campaign began with a failed naval attack by British and French ships on the Dardanelles Straits in February - March 1915 and continued with a major land invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula on April 25th, involving British and French troops as well as divisions of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC). Lack of sufficient intelligence and knowledge of the terrain, along with a fierce Turkish resistance, hampered the success of the invasion. By mid - October, Allied forces had suffered heavy casualties and had made little headway from their initial landing sites.

With World War I stalled on the Western Front by 1915, the Allied Powers were debating going on the offensive in another region of the conflict, rather than continuing with attacks in Belgium and France. Early that year, Russia’s Grand duke Nicholas appealed to Britain for aid in confronting a Turkish invasion in the Caucasus. (The Ottoman Empire had entered World War I on the side of the Central Powers, Germany and Austria-Hungary, by November 1914.) In reply the Allies launched a naval expedition to get the Dardanelles Straits, a passage connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of…