April 20, 2015
The Effects of Population Density and Noise
Many factors can affect an individual. Two factors that have a significant effect on many individuals are population density and noise. Population density is simply how many people are in a certain area. Population density is determined by dividing the number of the people in an area by the size of the area. Noise pollution will always increases if population density increases, same as it will decrease if the population density decreases. When population increases there are three concepts that change to allow an individual to adapt to the denser population.
Personal Space, Privacy, Territoriality
Personal space, privacy, and territoriality become very important when the population density increases. These three concepts often have an effect on how an individual adapts to their surroundings and can also effect behavior.
Personal Space Personal space is often thought of as a three-dimensional bubble surrounding an individual. Personal space is an area or zone that moves wherever the individual goes and often is off limits to others. When entering into another person’s, personal space one should ask permission or the individual may feel uncomfortable and act accordingly. Personal space is different for each person and is often determined by the situation. Another factor in personal space is an individual’s body type and/or gender. Generally, a female’s personal space is smaller than a male’s personal space and taller or larger people have more personal space then short or smaller individuals. Culture can also be a factor when it comes to personal space (Augustin, 2009).
Personal space that is decided by situation often is due to the type of people or how well others are known to the individual. When family members, close friends, or spouses/partners are around, usually a person’s personal space is smaller. However; when an individual is in an unfamiliar place, around strangers, or people they dis-trust then their personal space is much larger than normal. Personal space is different for every person and each situation.
Privacy is often thought of as a person being alone. Privacy is the need for an individual to be free from being disturbed or observed by other people. Privacy also applies to a group of two or more as the need to talk or meet without other people seeing, hearing or disturbing the individuals. There are different levels of privacy and the level required depends on the individual. Culture is also a factor in the level of privacy that one may need. Some cultures value privacy highly, while others don’t really value it at all. Privacy is something that an individual may take different measures to achieve. Some individuals may use a physical barrier, such as a shut door or even a lock, to achieve privacy; while others may use territorial behaviors to maintain their personal space and privacy (Augustin, 2009).
Behaviors that an individual exhibits that are related to his/her physical environment are known as territoriality. “Territoriality is defined here as the attempt to affect, influence, or control actions, interactions, or access by asserting and attempting to enforce control over a specific geographic area” (Sack, 1983, pg 1). This behavior, known as territorial behavior, is an individual’s way of defending his/her territory. Territory is the area that an individual possesses control over for any matter of time. Even though an individual possesses control over the area and defends the area it can be shared with others if the person allows it. Territory often assists an individual in maintaining privacy and personal space, along with maintaining a sense of self (Augustin, 2009).
When the population becomes too dense then it can contribute to psychological effects of crowding. Crowding can disrupt ones