Notes On Chemistry

Submitted By bkovacs34
Words: 410
Pages: 2

4 major elements (C, H, O, N) pH Water’s role in the body
A lot of terminology!
An atom- smallest unit of Stable matter
Ex. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen
Subatomic Particles
Positive charge, 1 mass unit
Neutral charge, 1 mass unit
Negative charge, low mass
If protons are not equal to electrons the atom is now known as an ion
Cation = (+)
Anion = (-)
Valence Shell vs. Core Electrons
Valence (outer) electron shells
“Want” to be filled
More stable
More energetically sound to have a full valence shell
So electrons will jump on board (or jump ship) until the atom is stable
8 = The Magic Number
Having 8 electrons in the outer valence shell is very stable
Atoms “want” to achieve the ‘Full’ 8 electron configuration
Bonding: An Introduction
Chemical Bonding = Link between atoms from a mutual attraction for electrons
Types of Bonds:
Ionic Bonds
Electron completely transferred
Reacting atoms = Ions
Cation (+) charged ion
Anion (-) charged ion
Two opposite charged ions attract one another
Covalent Bonding = SHARE
Two or more atoms sharing the electrons to make the outer shell more stable
Water: Di-Polar Molecule (Di = 2)
Hydrogen Bonds (Sticky Notes!)
Between H2O molecules cause surface tension (tendency for water molecules to attract one another); Water bubbles holding on (Cup overfilling with water trying to hold on)
H2O Surface Tension & The Lungs
If surface tension is too high in lungs they collapse
Role of surfactant – to decrease surface tension
Alveoli without surfactant – high surface tension
Alveoli with surfactant – low surface tension
States of Matter
Constant volume and shape
Ice: Strange solid state
Water molecules are spaced further apart
So ice