Notes On Transformation Of The West

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Chapter 17: Transformation of the West

I. Intro A. 1450-1750 1. Still ag 2. Commercially active 3. Manufacturing base 4. Science at center of society 5. Shifting ideas of family/nature 6. Increased bureau B. Reasons for change 1. Dominance of international trade 2. Overseas expansion 3. Combination of commerce, state, culture, and technology 4. 1450-1650 – series of cultural shifts 5. 1650-1750 – Scientific Revolution better than Enlightenment

II. The First Big Changes: Culture and Commerce A. The Italian Renaissance 1. Artistic movement 2. Challenged medieval values/styles a. Examine old truths 3. Why in Italy a. Urban, commercial economy b. Competitive city-states 4. New themes a. Writing in Latin b. Secular subjects – love/pride c. Classical/human-centered themes d. Religion declined as focus e. Humanism – humankind as focus of intellectual/artistic 5. Political Theory – Niccolo Machiavelli a. End justifies means – better to be feared then loved 6. Other effects a. Improved banking techniques b. Merchants became more profit-seeking c. Political rule based on ability to improve well-being/city’s glory d. Professional armies/improved tech. – conflict among city-states e. Diplomacy – exchange of ambassadors B. The Renaissance Moves Northward 1. Fall of Italian power a. French/Spanish invasions b. Atlantic trade routes reduced Mediterranean importance 2. Spread to North – France, Germany, England a. Classical art/architecture b. Greek/Latin literature c. Humanists wrote in vernacular – own language d. Writers more popular culture – low-brow – Shakespeare 1. bodily functions 2. human passions 3. Set new classics 3. Political Change > toward greater state power a. Revenue increase > greater ceremony b. Kings – Francis I – patrons of arts/architecture c. State-sponsored trading companies d. Military conquest e. Feudal/religious justifications not as important as state 4. Renaissance effects a. Kings still restricted by power of local lords b. Peasants not touched by Renaissance values c. Economics same d. Men more bravado – women more domestic C. Changes in Technology and Family 1. Technological Changes a. Learned from Asia 1. Pulleys/pumps for mines 2. Stronger iron b. Printing press – Johannes Gutenberg – movable type 1. Books helped expand Renaissance 2. Literacy gained ground 3. Source for new thinking 2. Family structure a. European-style family 1. Late marriage 2. Nuclear families not extended b. Goals/reasons 1. Limit birth/family size 2. Husband/wife importance 3. Linked family to property holdings – can’t marry till own property D. The Protestant and Catholic Reformations 1. Protestant Reformation a. Martin Luther – 1517 – German monk 95 Theses 1. Indulgences 2. Only faith brings salvation – not Church 3. Sacraments not important 4. Monasticism wrong 5. Translate Bible to vernacular b. Why did people buy into Luther’s views 1. Political Leaders
a. Nationalist – don’t want pope’s taxes b. gain more power over Holy Roman Emperor c. seize church lands d. State control of church 2. Ordinary People a. Justification for rebellion against lords b. Notion of work – other careers seen as positives c. Moneymaking OK d. Christian bias against moneymaking 2. Anglican Church a. Henry VIII has marriage/fertility issues – takes his ball and goes home 1. Women disposed of easily for political reasons 2. Daughter Elizabeth I – Protestant 3. Jean Calvin – Geneva, Switzerland – Predestination a. Priests as moral guiders b. Local believers participate in church administration c. Education to read Bible d. These would be your Puritans/Pilgrims with the Thanksgiving hats 4. Catholic Reformation a. Special council meetings b. Revived