Antifreeze; one of the most important things someone can have in their car during the months of winter and even summer. As a Canadian, I know that antifreeze is a very reliable and respected product. Whether it be the prevention of freezing coolant, or from an engine overheating, this product does the trick to save engines.
1.) Identify the chemicals found in antifreeze and the reasons they are part of the antifreeze product.
There are different kinds of antifreeze mixed with different chemicals, the variances are as follows;
Methanol-primary alcohol, inexpensive to produce and distribute, and highly soluble in water “due to its high affinity for Hydrogen bonding”. It’s boiling is lower than most coolant, which is why it is used in antifreeze, but methanol antifreeze are just a short time solution.
Ethylene glycol-described when they were first introduced as a replacement for methanol in 1926 as a “permanent antifreeze.” The higher boiling point made it applicable to both hot weather and cold weather. It is also odorless, but the main downside is the fact that it is toxic.
Propylene glycol-considerably less toxic than most chemicals, which means it is a safer choice. It is even trusted as much as to be used in food processing systems, which could potentially lead to accidental ingestion. The freezing point in water is repressed when propylene glycol is mixed with it.
Glycerol- non-toxic, resistant to pretty high temperatures, and noncorrosive. Similar to ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, it is able to form strong hydrogen bonds with water molecules, which lowers the chance of ice forming within the car engine.
2.) What are the formulas for these chemicals?
3.) State the chemical and physical properties of these substances.
Physical properties of Methanol;
Colourless liquid, hardly any odour, melting point at -97 degrees Celsius, boiling point at 65 degrees Celsius.
Chemical properties of Methanol;
Burns a pale blue, to form carbon dioxide and steam
Oxidized when mixed with acidified Potassium Dichromate (K2Cr2O7), or acidified Potassium Permanganate,(KMnO4) to form formaldehyde.
Physical properties of Ethylene glycol;
Boiling point is 197.4 degrees Celsius, freezing point is -11.2 degrees Celsius, heat of combustion at 25 degrees Celsius. Clear, colourless, and odourless.
Chemical properties of Ethylene glycol;
Corrosive-“Solvent action on some plastics”
Solubility- soluble in numerous organic solvents
Physical properties of Propylene glycol;
Colourless liquid, more viscous than water. Melting point of -72.4 degrees Fahrenheit, and a boiling point of 370.8 degrees Fahrenheit.
Chemical properties of Propylene glycol;
Slightly flammable at high temperatures, both flammable and water soluble. When this chemical mixes with water, it interrupts ice formation.
Physical properties of Glycerol;
Melting point is 18.17 degrees Celsius, boiling point is 290 degrees Celsius, completely soluble in water and alcohol. Useful solvent for many solids, organic or not.
Chemical properties of Glycerol;
Glycerol is a reactive molecule, and reacts to many alcohols. Best reactions are with alkaline or neutral conditions at 180 degrees Celsius. Room temperature allows glycerol to quickly absorb water as well.
4.) What are the benefits of antifreeze?