NSAID Anti Inflammatory Essay

Submitted By iffupink
Words: 3638
Pages: 15

Copyright Notice:
The copyright law of the United States (Title 17, United States Code) governs the making of photocopies or other reproductions of copyrighted material. Under certain conditions specified in the law, libraries and archives are authorized to furnish a photocopy or other reproduction. One of these specified conditions is that the photocopy or reproduction is not to be “used for any purpose other than private study, scholarship or research.” If a user makes a request for, or later uses, a photocopy or reproduction for purposes in excess of “fair use,” that user may be liable for copyright infringement. This institution reserves the right to refuse a copying order if, in its judgement, fulfillment of the order would involve violation of copyright law.

This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research and education use, including for instruction at the authors institution and sharing with colleagues.
Other uses, including reproduction and distribution, or selling or licensing copies, or posting to personal, institutional or third party websites are prohibited.
In most cases authors are permitted to post their version of the article (e.g. in Word or Tex form) to their personal website or institutional repository. Authors requiring further information regarding Elsevier’s archiving and manuscript policies are encouraged to visit: http://www.elsevier.com/copyright Author's personal copy
Bioscience Hypotheses (2009) 2, 290e294 available at www.sciencedirect.com

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/bihy

NSAID-induced gut inflammation and vasoconstriction: Causes and potential reversal with beta-CGRP e A hypothesis*
Chandra Somasundaram a,b, Rahul K. Nath a,b, Joseph Perkinson c,
Siva G. Somasundaram d,e,*, Ingvar Bjarnason f a Intron Pharmaceuticals, Houston, TX 77005, USA
Texas Nerve and Paralysis Institute, Houston, TX 77030, USA c Hospital drive, Victoria, TX 77901, USA d Department of Biology, School of Arts & Sciences, University of Houston-Victoria, TX 77479, USA e VFIC, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77845, USA f Department of Medicine, Guy’s, King’s, St Thomas’ Medical School, King’s College Hospital, Denmark Hill,
London SE5 9RS, UK b Received 1 April 2009; received in revised form 14 May 2009; accepted 22 May 2009

KEYWORDS
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP);
Inflammation;
Vasoconstriction;
Non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs
(NSAIDs);
Cyclooxygenase-1
(COX-1);
Cyclooxygenase-2
(COX-2) inhibitor

Abstract Traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors control inflammation. While these drugs are formulated to reduce one of the cardinal signs of inflammation by reducing prostaglandin levels at the site of inflammation, COX-1 inhibitors induce inflammation in the stomach as well as the small bowel. The COX-2 inhibitors, a large portion of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug market, provide a gastro-intestinally safer class of drugs. However, COX-2 inhibitors induce vasoconstriction via actions in renal and cardiovascular tissues. Since COX-2 inhibitors also have anticancer potential, it is worthwhile to design drug formulations that will not cause hypertension or cardiovascular damage. An attempt has thus been made in this article to formulate a hypothesis to circumvent the COX inhibitors induced inflammation and vasoconstriction through COX independent activation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a potent vasodilator neuropeptide found throughout the vascular and sensory nervous system.
Published by Elsevier Ltd.

*
Sources of support: We greatly acknowledge the financial support from University of Houston-Victoria and USDA e CSREES # 2006-3440217121.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: þ1 281 275 8808; fax: þ1 281 275 3361.
E-mail address: somasundarams@uhv.edu (S.G. Somasundaram).

1756-2392/$ - see front matter…