1. Incontinence ___b_ A) Volume of urine remaining after voiding (>100 ml)
2. Dysuria _f___ B) Involuntary loss of urine
3. Hesitancy ___j_ C) Accumulation of urine in the bladder- inability to empty fully
4. Oliguria __k__ D) Feeling of need to void immediately
5. Dribbling _g___ E) Blood in the urine
6. Retention _c___ F) Painful or difficult urination
7. Urgency __d__ G) Leakage of urine despite voluntary control of urination
8. Frequency _h___ H) Voiding at frequent intervals (<2 hours)
9. Polyuria _l___ I) Frequent or excessive urination at night
10. Nocturia __i__ J) Difficulty initiating urination
11. Hematuria _e___ K) Diminished urinary output relative to intake (400 ml/ 24 hrs)
12. Residual urine ___a_ L) Voiding large amounts of urine
Reference: (Potter & Perry, 2006, p. 1342).
1) Random (Routine urinalysis)- Can be collected during normal voiding, from an in-dwelling catheter or a urinary diversion collection bag. Collected in a clean specimen cup.
2) Clean-voided or midstream (culture and sensitivity)-
Collected in a sterile specimen cup.
3) Sterile specimen (culture and sensitivity)-
If the patient has an in-dwelling catheter, a sterile specimen can be collected using the aseptic technique through the special port (see Figure 43 - 9) found on the side of the catheter. If the catheter has been in situ for more than three days, it should be changed before the specimen is collected to avoid contamination by organisms in the