THE ROY ADAPTATAION MODEL
Chamberlain College of Nursing
Course Number: N501
Theories and models despite not being synonymous are used interchangeably in nursing. In general a theory is considered to be a speculative statement that is concerned with some elements of reality that are not yet proven. There are a number of theories in the field of nursing also which are used to support practice and decision making. In this regard, Viki Burges writes, “The application of individual nursing practice is based on a combination of scientific, medical, philosophical, psychological, sociological, and nursing theories. There is no one theory that fits every situation, area of practice or practitioner” (Burges, 2009). There are a number of grand theories in nursing of which one is the Roy adaptation model. This model was developed by Sister Callista Roy as a framework for theory, practice, and research in nursing. An important fundamental assumption in the Roy Adaptation model is that the person is a bio-psycho-social being who is in constant interaction with a changing environment. Despite being considered a complex model, it has been used widely and several research studies have highlighted its importance and effectiveness in health care settings.
Basic Assumptions of the Roy Adaptation Model:
The basic assumptions of the Roy Adaptation model have been discussed below:
The person is a bio-psycho-social being who interacts constantly with a changing environment (MJC, 2012).
A person uses both innate and acquired mechanisms that are biological, psychological and social in origin to adapt to a changing world.
A person should adapt to respond positively to the environmental changes.
Integration of human and environment meanings results in adaptation (BC, 2013).
The major concepts in the Roy Adaptation model are as follows:
Adaptation: It is the process and outcome by which persons as individuals or as groups use awareness and choice for human and environmental integration (MJC, 2012). In an individual the adaptive mechanisms help him adapt mentally, physically, socially, spiritually and emotionally. Adaptation in general means responding positively to environmental changes. The regulator and cognitive subsystems are processes that apply to the individuals in the Roy Adaptation model. The stabilizer and innovative subsystems apply to the groups.
Person: It is another important concept in the Roy Adaptation model. He is defined as the Bio-psycho-social being in constant interaction with a changing environment (MJC, 2012). He uses innate as well as the acquired mechanism to adapt. It also includes individuals or groups like Family, community and the entire society. Humans have been defined as holistic adaptive systems by the Roy adaption model. Person being the recipient of the nursing care is also the main focus. Environment: If we see the humans as adaptive systems, it is the world within and around the humans. The environment is constantly changing and it stimulates the person to make the adaptive processes. Environment includes all conditions, circumstances and influences surrounding and affecting the development and behaviour of persons and groups. An important point to note is that any environmental change of any kind requires increasing energy for adapting to the situation. The environmental factors affecting the person have been categorized as focal, contextual and residual stimuli.
Health: It is viewed as a reflection of adaptation. It is a state and process of being and becoming integrated and whole that reflects person and environment and mutuality.
Nursing: Nursing according to Roy is a healthcare profession focussed upon the human life processes and patterns of people with a commitment to promotion of health and full life potential for individuals, groups and the global society.