Nutrition and Amino Acids Essay

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Carbohydrates are a large group of organic compounds that include sugars, starch, and cellulose. (dictionary.com) There are two types of sugars: the simple sugars, which are monosaccharide, meaning they contain one molecule. An example of a simple sugar is glucose. The other type of sugar is complex sugars, which are polysaccharides, meaning they have chains of sugar molecules, and an example of a complex sugar is starch. Carbohydrates are sugars and starches that provide energy for humans and animals (T. Thompson). Carbohydrates can be found in bread, pasta, cookies, and cantaloupes. Glucose is a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates (dictionary.com). Glucose is one of the primary molecules that serve as energy sources for plants and animals, it is also a major energy source for most cells in the body (Shipman and Tillery on hyperphysics.edu). glucose is classified as a monosaccharide because it is a simple sugar. Glucose can be found in figs, apples, grapes, and apricots. Starch is a type of carbohydrate. Starch is a complex sugar, and is a polysaccharide, which has chains of sugar molecules. Your body breaks down starch into glucose, and releases the glucose into your bloodstream so it will be used for energy (Stein, healthyeating.com). A starch is a polysaccharide that functions as a carbohydrate (dictionary.com). Starch is found in cereal, grains, pasta, and rice Lipids are fats, oils, and waxes, they are insoluble in water. Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids. Fats are used in living things as parts of biological membranes and as chemical messengers. There are three kinds of lipids, the saturated, unsaturated, and the polyunsaturated lipids. (Prentice Hall Biology textbook pg. 46). Lipids are made from glycerol and fatty acids. Foods that have lipids are cheese, walnuts, butter, and beef. Proteins are molecules that are made of amino acids. They are a class of organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms (dictionary.com). Hormones, enzymes, and antibodies are proteins. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and there are 20 different amino acids. Those 20 amino acids can be arranged in millions of different ways to create different proteins, each one with a specific function in the body. The functions of proteins is to build, strengthen, and replace things such as tissue (mediLexicon international 2004-2013). Proteins are found in meat, poultry, sea foods, and beans. The indicator for starch is Lugols solution. When the solution starts out, the color is amber/orange, and it turns to a dark red or a very dark blue/black. The indicator for glucose is Benedicts solution, and the color it starts out is a light blue, and eventually turns into yellow, orange, or red. The indicator for proteins is the Biuret Reagent. The color starts out as dark blue, and turns to violet/purple. The indicator for lipids is brown paper, the color goes from brown to clear. Nutrition is the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth (dictionary.com). A healthy diet should consist of some carbohydrates, the essential fatty acids, found in lipids, the essential amino acids, found in…