Carbohydrates are a large group of organic compounds that include sugars, starch, and cellulose. (dictionary.com) There are two types of sugars: the simple sugars, which are monosaccharide, meaning they contain one molecule. An example of a simple sugar is glucose. The other type of sugar is complex sugars, which are polysaccharides, meaning they have chains of sugar molecules, and an example of a complex sugar is starch. Carbohydrates are sugars and starches that provide energy for humans and animals (T. Thompson). Carbohydrates can be found in bread, pasta, cookies, and cantaloupes. Glucose is a simple sugar that is an important energy source in living organisms and is a component of many carbohydrates (dictionary.com). Glucose is one of the primary molecules that serve as energy sources for plants and animals, it is also a major energy source for most cells in the body (Shipman and Tillery on hyperphysics.edu). glucose is classified as a monosaccharide because it is a simple sugar. Glucose can be found in figs, apples, grapes, and apricots. Starch is a type of carbohydrate. Starch is a complex sugar, and is a polysaccharide, which has chains of sugar molecules. Your body breaks down starch into glucose, and releases the glucose into your bloodstream so it will be used for energy (Stein, healthyeating.com). A starch is a polysaccharide that functions as a carbohydrate (dictionary.com). Starch is found in cereal, grains, pasta, and rice Lipids are fats, oils, and waxes, they are insoluble in water. Many lipids are formed when a glycerol molecule combines with compounds called fatty acids. Fats are used in living things as parts of biological membranes and as chemical messengers. There are three kinds of lipids, the saturated, unsaturated, and the polyunsaturated lipids. (Prentice Hall Biology textbook pg. 46). Lipids are made from glycerol and fatty acids. Foods that have lipids are cheese, walnuts, butter, and beef. Proteins are molecules that are made of amino acids. They are a class of organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and are an essential part of all living organisms (dictionary.com). Hormones, enzymes, and antibodies are proteins. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and there are 20 different amino acids. Those 20 amino acids can be arranged in millions of different ways to create different proteins, each one with a specific function in the body. The functions of proteins is to build, strengthen, and replace things such as tissue (mediLexicon international 2004-2013). Proteins are found in meat, poultry, sea foods, and beans. The indicator for starch is Lugols solution. When the solution starts out, the color is amber/orange, and it turns to a dark red or a very dark blue/black. The indicator for glucose is Benedicts solution, and the color it starts out is a light blue, and eventually turns into yellow, orange, or red. The indicator for proteins is the Biuret Reagent. The color starts out as dark blue, and turns to violet/purple. The indicator for lipids is brown paper, the color goes from brown to clear. Nutrition is the process of providing or obtaining the food necessary for health and growth (dictionary.com). A healthy diet should consist of some carbohydrates, the essential fatty acids, found in lipids, the essential amino acids, found in…
The functional group NH2 found in amino acids is called? AMINO GROUP
Cells are the basic functional and structural units of an organism’s body. Can be described as? Self-contained living entities.
The first principle of diet planning is that the food we choose must provide energy and essential nutrients including. WATER
The dietary disaccharides include? LOCTOSE, MALTOSE & SUCROSE
When the body uses fat or fuel without the help of carbohydrate, this…
CH 273 Exam 3 Study Guide/Annotated chapter list
Ch 22: Section 22.1
isoacceptor tRNA: tRNAs that bear the same amino acid but have different anticodons
Many tRNA bases pair intramolecularly gnereating short stems and loops of what is commonly called a cloverleaf secondary structure
Acceptor system—segement at the 5’ end of the tRNA pairs with the bases near 3’
D loop- often contains the modified base dihydrouridine
Variable loop—ranges from 3-21 nucleotides in…
“Proteins are polymers of amino acid covalently linked through peptide bonds into a chain. Within and outside cells, proteins serve a myriad of functions, including structural roles (cytoskeleton), as catalysts (enzymes), transporter to ferry ions and molecules across membranes, and hormones.” (http://www.vivo.colostate.edu/hbooks/genetics/biotech/basics/prostruct.html)
Proteins are polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds. There are 20 different amino acids that make up essentially…
ribosome for it to be read and decoded by rRNA.
rRNA then tells tRNA to go into the cytoplasm and retrieve the base – pair for codons.
Which tRNA brings the base – pair codons to rRNA in order for the pairs to form an amino acid.
The journey is almost done when each amino acid is linked to each other to form a particular protein.
This is now the end and the quest must have an end,
So the codon tells rRNA protein it is complete and is released to Endoplasmic Reticulum.
The adventure starts…
Proteins are made from amino acids which are considered the ‘building blocks’ of life. Below is an example (Figure one) of an amino acid, adapted from Boyle and Senior (Human biology, 2008, p.46).
Figure 1. Structure of amino acid
O R H
C C N
HO H H
As the example shows, the amino is made from oxygen (O),…
within an organism.
The most important thing to a protein molecule is how the amino acids are linked. The sequence of amino acids in a protein is a type of code that specifies the protein and distinguishes one protein from another. A genetic code in the DNA determines this amino acid code. The genetic code consists of the sequence of nitrogenous bases in the DNA. How the nitrogenous base code is translated to an amino acid sequence in a protein is the basis for protein synthesis.
For protein synthesis…
The Building Blocks of Life
Peptides are short polymers of amino acids linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
* What is an amino acid?
* An amino acid is a molecule containing…
* an amine group
* a carboxylic acid
a side chain (R-varies)
* There are 20 standard amino acids (standard meaning that they are directly coded for by DNA)
* All except Proline are primary amines.
1.3 – Macromolecules
- large molecules composed of repeating sub-units
- Four major classes:
- nucleic acids
- Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation Reaction)
- two subunits linked through the removal of a water molecule
- absorbs energy
- Hydrolysis Reaction
- two subunits break apart by addition of a water molecule
- releases energy
- Food Energy
- healthy body requires about 50…
hydrophiic, polar, nonpolar, can ionized, etc.)
4) HCl is a strong acid. What distinguishes a strong acid from a weak one? Describe the pH scale. What would be the pH of a 0.1 M solution of HCl? What would be the concentration of OH- in this solution?
Strong acids completely dissociate to their ionic form in water (e.g. H+ and Cl- ions). Weak acids partially dissociate, and the binding and release of H+ ions is reversible (Carbonic acids was used as a example in class). pH scale compresses the range…
Determining the Effect of Nonpolar Side Chain Length on HC of Amino Acids
DATE SUBMITTED__May 11, 2000__
ROLE GROUP MEMBER
TIME & TASK KEEPER………………CHUNGPENG SHEN
SUMMARY OF PROJECT CONCLUSIONS
The relationship between nonpolar side chain length of amino acids and their heats of combustion was determined by combusting…