Part A: Body Organization
1. Diagram an individual in anatomical position:
Anatomical position is standing, thumbs facing away from the body and palms facing forward.
2. In anatomical position:
A. Are the thumbs medial or lateral?
The thumbs are lateral.
B. Are the palms of the hands ventral or dorsal?
The palms are ventral.
3. What is the advantage of having a standard anatomical position?
The advantage of having a standard anatomical position is that it makes it easy to talk to others and describe what you want to communicate by having a standard set of terms.
1. Define each of the following body regions.
a. Axial- the trunk, head and neck area of the body.
b. Appendicular- the arms and legs. The appendages of the body, the limbs.
c. Cephalic- The head, the axial region.
d. Cervical- The neck, the axial region.
e. Thoracic- The chest area, the thoracic region.
f. Abdominal- Below the chest and above the pelvic area, the middle of the trunk, trunk region.
g. Pelvic- Lower trunk area, Hip area.
2. Describe two methods of subdividing the abdomen.
a. The Nine Abdominopelvic regions- Right hypochondriac region, Epigastric region, Left hypochondriac region, Right lumbar region, Umbilical region, Left lumbar region, Right iliac region, Hypo gastric region and Left iliac region.
b. The Abdominopelvic Quadrants- Right upper Quadrant (RUQ), Left Upper Quadrant (LUQ), Right Lower Quadrant (RLQ) and the Left Lower Quadrant (LLQ).
1. List the major organs found in each of the following body cavities:
a. Cranial cavity- Brain.
b. Spinal cavity- Spinal cord.
c. Pleural Cavities- Lungs.
d. Mediastinum- Heart.
e. Abdominal- Liver, Stomach and kidneys.
f. Pelvic- Bladder.
1. Using the directional terms studied in this section, make one sentence for each of the word pairs listed below. The sentence should describe the relationship of the first word in the word pair to the second word in the word pair.
The elbow is distal of the shoulder.
The nipples are superior to the umbilicus.
C. Umbilicus/Shoulder Blades
The umbilicus is ventral and the shoulder blades are dorsal.
The skin is superficial to the muscles.
The nose is lateral to the ears.
F. Right ankle/Left ankle
The right ankle is contralateral to the left ankle.
Body Planes/ Sections
1. For each question, record the appropriate body plane/section.
a. What plane divides the kidney into front and back halves?
The frontal plane divides the kidneys into front and back halves.
b. What plane separates the stomach from the urinary bladder?
The transverse plane divides the stomach from the urinary bladder.
c. What plane separates the left arm from the rest of the body?
The sagittal plane divides the left arm from the rest of the body.
d. What plane divides the brain into equal left and right sides?
The mid sagittal plane divides the brain into left and right sides.
Part B: Carbohydrates
1. Define Carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are sugars and starches that provide life with energy.
2. What chemical elements compose carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are composed of Carbon, Oxygen and Hydrogen.
3. List and define the three major GROUPS of carbohydrates.
The three major groups of carbohydrates are monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
4. Name at least one EXAMPLE of each major group of carbohydrates.
Glucose is an example of a monosaccharide. Sucrose is an example of a disaccharide. Glycogen is an example of a polysaccharide.
5. What are the functions of carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates are the main energy source for life.
Results: Bio 210 Lab 2 Questions
Part A: Lipids
1. Define lipids.
A Lipid is a molecule that is made up of fatty acids or steroids.
2. What Chemical elements compose lipids?
Hydrogen, oxygen and carbon make up lipids.
a. Saturated Fatty acid- No Double bonds, all available bonds