• To generate energy, glucose is metabolized through cellular respiration
• Aerobic metabolism
• Produces ATP a form of energy
Gluconeogenesis and Ketogenesis
Diabetes mellitus is the leading cause of blindness in the U.S. 44 percent of all new cases of kidney failure
Type 1- insulin is no longer made in the body.
Type 2- insulin is present, but the cells do not respond
Insulin is in the pancreas
Gestational diabetes occurs in pregnant women.
Symptoms- excessive thirst, frequent urination, blurred vision, weight loss
Long term- damage to the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, eyes, and nervous system. Infections are common in patients with diabetes and amputations may be necessary.
Diabetes treatment goal to keep blood glucose levels within normal ranges.
• Reactive hypoglycemia- over secretion of insulin in response to carbohydrate intake
• Treatment- frequent small meals including protein
• Fasting hypoglycemia abnormal insulin secretion related to food intake
Carbohydrates and dental caries
Low carb weight loss diets
• The rationale for low carb diets that foods high in carbs stimulate the release of insulin
• Insulin promotes energy storage, mostly from fat
• The more insulin you release the more fat you store
• Low carbs diets cause less insulin to be released
• With low carbs diets the body produces more ketones
• Ketones help suppress the appetite.
Carbs 45- 65%
Carbs and heart disease
• Diets high in whole grains have ben found to reduce the risk of heart disease
• Water- soluble fiber binds dietary cholesterol and reduces absorption.
Chapter 5 Lipids
• Lipid- Fat
• Lipids give texture =, flavor and aroma to our food
• Fats and oils contain 9 kcalories pre gram
• The typical American diet gets about 34% of its energy from fat
• 3 fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule.
• If one attached monogyceride
• Short chain fatty acids range from 4- 7 carbons and remain liquid at colder temperature Ex: milk
• Medium chain fatty acids range from 8- 12 carbons and solidify when chilled but are liquid at room temperature Ex: coconut oil
• Long chain fatty acids, greater than 12 carbons are usually solid at room temperature ex: beef fat
Saturated Fatty Acids
• Saturated fatty acids contain carbons in a chain that are bound in two hydrogen
• Most animal fats and tropical oils contain saturated acids
• Oxygen damage is rancidity.
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
• Unsaturated fat contain some carbons are not saturated with hydrogen
• The essential fatty acids omega- 3and omega- 6are unsaturated fatty aids
• Monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats are unsaturated fatty acids.
Trans Fatty acids
• Can be created by hydrogenation
• Hydrogenation causes some double bonds to become saturated.
• Trans fatty acids have been shown to raise blood cholesterol levels and increases the risk of heart disease
• Trans fats are worst than saturated fats
• Lipid found in plants and animals
• Cholesterol type of sterol found only in animals
• 90% found in cell membrane
• diet high in cholesterol risk heart disease
• Lipids attached to a phosphate group
• Phosphoglycerides- such as lecithin, are the major class of phospholipids
• Phosphoglycerides can act as emulsifies
• Form lipid bilayer in cell