17.1 GROWING UP
• Normal growth and development are highly dependent on calorie and nutrient intake.
• Physical growth rate is at its peak velocity during infancy, it slows during childhood, then increases again during adolescence.
• During the growing years, height and weight increase, body composition changes, and body organs and systems mature.
17.2 PHYSICAL GROWTH
• The single best indicator of a child nutritional status is growth. • Growth charts matched to a child's gender are used to track physical growth overtime to identify a child's growth percentile curves and determine if growth is progressing normally. 3
17.2 PHYSICAL GROWTH
• BMI- for-age is a good indicator of recent nutritional status.
• Stature-for-age is a good indicator of long-term nutritional status. • Infants and young children who do not grow at the expected rate for several months and are dramatically smaller or shorter than other children the same age, especially those who fall below the 5th percentile, experience failure to thrive.
Continually receiving it minimal quantities of food may permanently and irreversibly stunt growth and development.
Growth in height seizes when the growth plates at the end of the bones fuse.
17.3 NUTRIENT NEEDS
• The greatest calorie in nutrient needs, pound for pound, occur during infancy. The total quantity of calories and nutrients needed rises throughout childhood.
• The total quantities of nutrients and calories needed are greater during adolescence than at any other time, except pregnancy and lactation.
• Adolescent males need more of many nutrients than females because males are larger, develop more muscle mass and bone density, and have a longer, more intense growth period.
FEEDING BABIES: HUMAN MILK AND
• With a few exceptions, human milk or iron fortified infant formula and the babies internal nutrient stores meet an infants nutrient needs at least until 4 to 6 months. • Human milk is the most ideal and desirable source of nutrients for infants. • Commercial iron fortified infant formulas provide a safe, nutritious alternative to human milk..
17.5 FEEDING BABIES: ADDING SOLID
• When to introduce solid foods into an infant diet hinges on the infant nutritional needs, psychological capabilities, and physical ability.
• The recommended sequence for introducing solid food is iron fortified baby cereal, juices and pureed fruits and vegetables, protein rich foods, finger food,