1. List the 6 classes of nutrients and functions of each. Identify those that yield energy and those that are organic.
The 6 classes of nutrients are fats, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, water and protein. Fats, carbs and protein are energy yielding. Fats, carbs, protein and vitamins are organic.
6. Explain why milk is more nutrient dense than a soft drink.
Milk is more nutrient dense because its calories come more from nutrients then soft drinks. It contains more calories from fat, protein and carbs.
8. What is a kcalorie? Why is kcalorie control important to a nutritious diet? How do we measure kcals? How many Kcals in a gram of fat? In a teaspoon of protein or Carbohydrate?
A kcalories is a thousand calories. We see kcalories on our DV labels. Kcalories control is important to a nutritious diet because if one eats more kcalories then their body uses the body will store the excess as fat. A kcal is he energy needed to warm one kilogram of water 1 degree Celsius. There are 9 kcals in a gram of fat and 4 in a teaspoon of protein or carbohydrate.
12. What is the purpose of the DRI’s, including RDA, AI, UL and DV?
The purpose of DRI’s is to help people determine how much of a given nutrient they should eat.
14. What are the AMDR – macronutrient recommendations for the percent of Kcals from protein, fat and carbohydrate in the diet?
The AMDR for the macronutrients are 10-35% kcals from protein, 20-35% from fat and 45-65% from carbs.
Chapter 2 - #2,5,8,11
2. What are the US Dietary Guidelines? Explain them.
US Dietary Guidelines are recommendations for how much of different types of foods one should eat. For example it is recommended that people eat three servings of fruits per day to be healthy.
5. What information is required on all food labels?
The information required on all food labels is what is in the food, the amount of calories and daily value percentages for things such as fat and carbs. Also food labels are required to say if they contain any allergens and if they are made in a place that produces anything with any allergens.
8. How are exchange lists different from the Food Guide Pyramid?
Exchange lists are foods one can eat in place of other foods. For example vegetarians can eat beans instead of meat. They are different from the Food Guide Pyramid because the pyramid suggests how much of every food group one should have a day while the exchange list says how much of something one should eat to equal eating something else.
11. Give an example of a diet that lacks adequacy, balance and moderation.
A diet high in fast food products lacks adequacy and balance in that it doesn’t provide all the nutrients needed to be healthy, it provides a lot of some nutrients (fats/carbs) and little of others (vitamins/minerals). It lacks in moderation if it is eaten a lot and goes over the DV for calories.
Chapter 3 - #2,6,7,8,10
2. After CHO, protein and fat are digested, what end products are absorbed into the blood?
The end products absorbed are glucose and amino acids.
6. Identify the organs of the digestive tract and the accessory organs and the function of each in digestion, absorption and elimination.
The organs of the digestive tract are the mouth, esophagus, lower eusophegical sphincter, stomach, pyloric sphincter, small intestine, large intestine, rectum and anus. The accessory organs are the salivary glands, liver, gallbladder and pancreas.
Mouth- chews and mixes food with saliva, starts digestion.
Esophagus- passes food from the mouth to stomach
Lower eusophegical sphincter- allows passage from esophagus to stomach
Stomach- adds acid, enzymes, fluid and gastric acid, Churns and mixes food into a liquid called chime.
Pyloric sphincter- allows passage from stomach to small intestine and prevents backflow.
Small intestine- secretes enzymes that digest all energy yielding nutrients to smaller nutrients.
Large intestine- reabsorbs water and