Chapter 5 Personality and Values
Chapter 6 Perception and Individual Decision Making
Factors That Influence Perception
How do we explain the fact that individuals may look at the same thing yet perceive it differently? A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception. These factors can reside in the perceiver; in the object, or target, being perceived; or in the context of the situation in which the perception is made (see Exhibit 6-1).
When you look at a target and attempt to interpret what you see, your interpretation is heavily influenced by your personal characteristics—your attitudes, personality, motives, interests, past experiences, and expectations. For instance, if you expect police officers to be authoritative or young people to be lazy, you may perceive them as such, regardless of their actual traits.
Instrumental values terminal values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.
instrumental values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.
Intrinsic motivation involves engaging in a behavior because it is personally rewarding; essentially, performing an activity for its own sake rather than the desire for some external reward.
Extrinsic motivation occurs when we are motivated to perform a behavior or engage in an activity in order to earn a reward or avoid a punishment.
Maslow separated the five needs into higher and lower orders. Physiological and safety needs, where the theory says people start, were lower-order needs, and social, esteem, and self-actualization were higher-order needs. Higher-order needs are satisfied internally (within the person), whereas lower-order needs are predominantly satisfied externally (by things such as pay, union contracts, and tenure).
Theory X The assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
Theory Y The assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
3 two-factor theory A theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory.
McClelland’s theory of needs A theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation.
Correct (7 Motivation Concepts) equity theory A theory that says that individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond to eliminate any inequities.
Specificity and feedback (7 Motivation Concepts) goal-setting theory A theory that says that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance.
Four ingredients are common to MBO programs: goal specificity, participation in decision making (including the setting of goals or objectives), an explicit time period, and performance feedback.53 Many elements in MBO programs match propositions of goal-setting theory. For example, having an explicit time period to accomplish objectives matches goal-setting theory’s emphasis on goal specificity. Similarly, we noted earlier that feedback about goal progress is a critical element of goal-setting theory. The only area of possible disagreement between MBO and goal-setting theory is participation: MBO strongly advocates it, whereas goal-setting theory demonstrates that managers’ assigned goals are usually just as effective.
Correct (9 Foundations of Group Behavior) forming stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. storming stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. norming stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness. performing stage The fourth stage in group development, during