Section A – Action/Adventure Films
1. Terminology Glossary
2. What is Section A about?
3. Action/Adventure Conventions Revision
4. Superman Returns screenshot analysis
5. Action/Adventure Representation Revision
6. Representation screenshot analysis
Section B – TV Comedy
1. Terminology Glossary
2. What is Section B about?
3. Audience Pleasures in TV Comedy Revision
4. Institution and scheduling Revision
Practice Exam Papers 1. Practice Questions 2. Example Answers
Glossary of Moving-Image Terminology
What it means...
The system of cutting used in most mainstream films. The intention is to establish the illusion of continuous action and keep the audiences’ attention on the story.
Use of editing style which draws the audience attention to the film making process to reveal that film is ‘constructed’, not ‘natural’.
This is when one character is shown looking at another character (often off-screen), and then the other character is shown looking "back" at the first character.
Cross-cutting is an editing technique most often used in films to establish action occurring at the same time in two different locations. In a cross-cut, the camera will cut away from one action to another action, which can suggest the simultaneity of these two actions but this is not always the case.
It can be used to build suspense.
When scenes are edited together using lots of shots cut together quickly. Has the effect the action is taking place quickly and can build tension.
The gradual transition from one image to another.
An abrupt transition from one shot to another. Usually it is used to maintain continuity editing.
A transition from one image to another. One image is replaced by another with a distinct edge that forms a shape. For example a simple edge, an expanding circle, or the turning of a page. Makes the audience more ‘aware’ they are watching a film.
Transition generally used at the end of a scene to signify to the audience an end of action. Generally action will fade to black.
Two shots of the same subject are taken from camera positions that vary only slightly. It causes the subject to appear to ‘jump’ in an abrupt way, drawing the audiences’ attention to the editing.
Computer generated imagery. Any still or moving image created using software.
A post-production effect in which time seems to slow down.
A shot which establishes the setting for the scene. For example: A long shot of a building exterior.
Sometimes called a ‘bird’s eye view’. This is an extreme high-angle shot.
A shot intended to show the action from the perspective of a particular character.
A shaky effect created when the cinematographer just holds the camera. Has the effect of the audience feeling as if they are ‘in’ the action.
Used to achieve a smooth even shot when shooting action.
A shot created using a large camera mounting, capable of achieving high elevations and movements.
A shot in which the camera moves to follow a sequence of action, placed usually on a dolly or specially prepared tracks.
Part of the image is in focus while the rest is out of focus or blurred. This draws the audiences’ attention to a particular action/character.
Canted Angle (or Dutch Angle)
The camera is placed on a slant. Often used to portray the psychological uneasiness or tension in the subject being filmed.
A cinematic technique in which the camera moves closer or further from the subject while at the same time adjusting the zoom to keep the subject the same size in the frame. The effect is that the subject appears stationary while the background size changes.
Sound which has a source on-screen. For example: dialogue.