All professional disciplines are based on distinctive knowledge communicated in models and theories that are applied in practice (Cody, 2013). Nursing theories offers the stage that allows healthcare professionals to identify patients and their different health problems; this helps in the planning and intervention for better care (Zaccagnini & White, 2011). Theories may help in managing all levels of nursing practice, including organization, implementing, and clarifying ideal responses to nursing care outcomes (Chism, 2013). Nurses may adopt a particular nursing theory to support and use in their work or may select a more diverse method by using ideas from numerous theories. Nurses may also discover specific theories are suitable for specific circumstances. As such, one theory may be used with a patient in a sub-acute care setting, while another theory may be more appropriate to a patient in an acute care setting. Irrespective of the method selected, nurses know the importance and worth of the use of a nursing theory as an instrument in helping achieve effective nursing care (Zaccagnini & White, 2011). Ethical and moral decisions are needed in every profession; this helps in answering questions like, is this right and is this responsible? The purpose of this paper is to review theoretical and ethical basis for practice for a registered nurse .The paper aims is to explore different nursing theories and its effect on patient education. Theories that will be explored are self-care deficit nursing theory by Dorothea Orem, theory of goal attainment by Imogene King and complexity Science theory. The paper will briefly review the phenomena; effective patient education and will finally discuss the writers’ ethical framework for practice and its effect on patient education.
Phenomena of Interest: Patient Education Changes in medical and technological knowledge, increasing incidence of chronic illness, early hospital discharge; all this combined with higher awareness among individuals of their right to be informed and to take control over their own health has made patient education an important dimension of nursing care (Sargeant 2009). The task of teaching has been gradually recognized as part of the professional role of nurses and patient. Patient education is necessary for the overall health system and may lead to better compliance with healthy behaviors and lifestyle changes. Studies show patients who understand their hospital discharge teachings are 30 percent less likely to be readmitted or end up in the emergency room than patients who did not understand discharge instructions (Annals of Internal Medicine, 2009). It is therefore imperative to adopt an effective way of educating patients
Nursing Meta-Paradigms The meta-paradigms of nursing provide a global perspective on the discipline. The meta-paradigm of nursing has the following elements; person, environment, health and nursing care (Thorne, Canam, Dahinten, Hall, Henderson, & Kirkham, 1998). Person, as a concept refers to the patient, this concept encourages nurses to see the person as an entity and not just as an illness or diagnosis. Person as a concept may include a patient’s relatives or community that help form and define them (Fawcett, 1984). To be able to effectively educate the patient he/she needs to be viewed as a person with education tailored specifically for the person. Environment can be basically described as a person’s surroundings that may impact their recovery or well-being. This meta-paradigm includes both internal and external factors such as food, water, medications air, noise, and temperature that act on an individual (Fawcett, 1984). A patient’s environment will influence the patient’s willingness to be educated. The concept of health must include an individuals’ physical, mental and social wellbeing. A person's health must be seen as relative, as its range may be