Offense-specific crime refers to the view that an offender reacts selectively to the characteristics of a particular criminal acts. For instance, if someone was deciding to commit a burglary they might consider the probability of security devices, potential target yield, or possible escape routes.
5. D) focal concerns
Focal concerns are values that have evolved specifically to fit conditions in lower-class environments. These include trouble, toughness, smartness excitement, fate, and autonomy.
6. D) extinction
Extinction occurs when crime reduction programs produce a short-term positive effect, but benefits dissipate as criminals adjust to new conditions. For example, burglars learn to dismantle alarms or avoid patrols. …show more content…
Joe Loya’s punishment was not harsh enough because he kept robbing banks even after serving prison time.
22. B) alienation
The teens were mainly feeling alienation because of the lack of opportunity they had in their poverty stricken neighborhood. They felt their only choice to survive was crime.
34. B) social disorganization theory
According to this theory, crime flourishes in a disorganized area in which institutions of social control, such as the family, commercial establishments, and schools, have broken down and no longer can perform their expected functions. There are high unemployment and school dropout rates, deteriorated housing, low income levels, and large numbers of single parent households.
41. B) surplus value
Critical thinkers believe that the key crime-producing element of modern corporate capitalism is the effort to create surplus value- the excess profits that are produced by the laboring classes and accrued by business owners.
44. A) True
The critical feminist theory views gender inequality as stemming from the unequal power of men and women in capitalist society, which leads to the exploitation of women by fathers, boyfriends, and