Nucleus: The nucleus is a highly specialized organelle that serves as the information processing and administrative centre of the cell. This organelle has two major functions: it stores the cell's hereditary material, or DNA, and it coordinates the cell's activities, which include growth, intermediary metabolism, protein synthesis, and reproduction (cell division).
Chloroplasts: The most important characteristic of plants is their ability to photosynthesize, in effect, to make their own food by converting light energy into chemical energy. This process is carried out in specialized organelles called chloroplasts.
Golgi apparatus: The Golgi apparatus is the distribution and shipping department for the cell's chemical products. It modifies proteins and fats built in the endoplasmic reticulum and prepares them for export as outside of the cell.
Microfilaments: Microfilaments are solid rods made of globular proteins called actin. These filaments are primarily structural in function and are an important component of the cytoskeleton.
Microtubules: These straight, hollow cylinders are found throughout the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells (prokaryotes don't have them) and carry out a variety of functions, ranging from transport to structural support.
Mitochondria: Mitochondria are oblong shaped organelles found in the cytoplasm of all eukaryotic cells. In plant cells, they break down carbohydrate and a sugar molecule to provide energy, particularly when light isn’t available for the chloroplasts to produce energy.
Ribosomes: All living cells contain ribosomes, tiny organelles composed of approximately 60 percent RNA and 40 percent protein. In eukaryotes, ribosomes are made of four strands of RNA. In prokaryotes, they consist of three strands of RNA.
Vacuole: Each plant cell has a large, single vacuole that stores compounds, helps in plant growth, and plays an important structural role for the plant.
Nuclear pore: The nuclear pore is a protein-lined channel in the nuclear envelope that regulates the transportation of molecules between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Each nuclear pore is a large complex of proteins that allows small molecules and ions to freely pass, or diffuse, into or out of the nucleus. Nuclear pores also allow necessary proteins to enter the nucleus from the cytoplasm if the proteins have special sequences that indicate they belong in the nucleus.
Plasma membrane: The cell