Organic Chem Essay

Submitted By prerunner24
Words: 687
Pages: 3

Traditional deffintion of organic chemistry Chemistry of compounds found in living species (organisms) Modern deffiniton of organic chemistry Study of carbon compounds (just because it contains carbon doesn’t make in organic
Torbern Bergman (1770) expressed the difference between organic and inorganic
(living v. nonliving) Antoine Lavoisier (1780’s) first table of elements, organic always contains C, usually H, often O & N
Michel Chevreal (1816) converted one organic compound into another then seprated into pure organic compounds (fattyacids) huge blow to vital force theory Friedrich Wohler (1828) converted inorganic compound (ammonium cyanate) into organic compound (urea)
Proton P+ , +1
Located in nucleus
Mass about 1
P=N Neutron No , 0
In nucleus
About one
Electron e-, -1 outside nucleus about 0 Atomic number (Z) # of protons
Mass Number (A) # of protons + # of neutrons Isotope Atom of the same element with same Z and different A
Atomic weight Weighted atomic mass of all “stable” isotopes of an element Orbital Solution to wave equation (wave function) and home of electrons
Wave function Predicts the volume of space about a nucleus that has a 95% probability of finding an electron w/ certian energy Wave equation Mathematical discription of an electrons motion around a nucleus according to quantum mechanical model
Various orbital names S, P, D, F……. ect S 1 lobe
1 orbital at each E level
2 e- at each E level
P 2 lobes
3 orbital at each E level
6 e- at each E level D 4 lobes
5 orbital at each E level
10 e- at each E level
Shells Different layers about the nucleus in which electrons exist Node Region of 0% electron density
# nodes = (n-1)
Different shells have: Different distances from the nucleus, energy levels, number and kind of electron orbital, # of nodes Autbau principle e- fill lowest energy levels first
Pauli exclusion principle Max of 2e- can occupy each orbital and must be opposite spin Hunds rule If more then 2 orbitals of equivalent value exist then each orbital is half filled, if not enough e-
August Kekula and Archibald couper (1858) indepedantly proposed that C has 4 affinity units in all organic compounds. Tetravalent, Kekula C can bond to form extend chains of atoms
Emil Erlenmyer Proposed C-C triple bond A. Crum Browm Proposed C-C double bond
Van’t Hoff and Le Bel (1874) Proposed 4 bonds of C are not randomly orienated, have specific special direction Van’t Hoff C with 4 attached atoms is tetrahedral in nature
Ionic bonds Metals/nonmetals
Transferral of electrons from metal to nonmetal Covalent bonds Nonmetal/nonmetal
Due to sharing of electrons
Metallic bonding Metals/metals Valence shell An atoms outermost electron