Organic Molecules - Chemistry/AP Bio Essay

Submitted By tiffanytolleyy
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Chapter 3 Review – Test on Tuesday October 7, 2014
How are macromolecules formed?
Answer: Dehydration Synthesis
Dehydration – Remove water
Synthesis – To make or form
Also called “Condensation Reaction”
Forms polymers by combining monomers by “removing waters”
How are macromolecules separated or digested?
Answer: Hydrolysis
Separates a polymer into monomers by “adding water”
Releases monomers and energy
Monosaccharaide – one sugar unit
Examples include:
Glucose (C₆H₁₂O₆)
Disaccharide – two sugar units
Examples include:
Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
Lactose (glucose + galactose)
Maltose (glucose + glucose)
Polysaccharide – many sugar units
Examples include:
Starch (bread, potatoes)
Glycogen (beef, muscle)
Cellulose (lettuce, corn)
Dehydration Synthesis

Glycogen – energy storage in animals
Each branch ending is available for the enzymes of hydrolysis to attack and releaser the energy stored in the chemical bonds between glucose monomers.

Starch – energy/glucose storage in plants
Not as highly branched as glycogen, but still many locations for enzymes of hydrolysis to attack, break the bonds between glucose units, and release glucose monomers and energy.

Cellulose – structural carbohydrate
Turquoise lines represent the electrostatic attraction of hydrogen bonds between glucose chains. This creates a tough fibrous molecule that is difficult to break down by hydrolysis.

Proteins (polypeptide)
Amino acids (20 different kinds of AA) bonded together by peptide bonds (polypeptides).
Six functions of proteins:
Storage – albumin (egg white)
Transport – hemoglobin
Regulatory – muscles
Structural – membranes, hair, nails
Enzymes – cellular reactions
Four levels of protein structure:
Primary Structure
Secondary Structure
Tertiary Structure
Quaternary Structure
Primary Structure
Amino acids bonded together by polypeptide bonds (straight chains)
20 amino acids:

Dehydration Synthesis

Primary Structure = order of amino acids
Secondary Structure
3-dimensional folding arrangement of a primary structure into coils and pleats held together by hydrogen bonds.
Two examples:

Tertiary Structure
Secondary structures bent and folded into a more complex 3-D arrangement of linked polypeptides.
Bonds: H-bonds, ionic bonds, disulfide bridges (S-S)
Called a “subunit)