The Multi-Store Model by Atkinson & Shiffrin suggests that we have 3 stores: Sensory memory(SM), Short term memory (STM) and Long term memory (LTM). Before information is encoded, it first enters our sensory memory. If we pay attention to it, it passes through to out STM.
STM has a duration of around 18 seconds. Memory is encoded in our STM acoustically. Through maintenance rehearsal, it can be remembered. This allows us to further rehearse the information meaning the information passes onto out Long term memory. This happens through elaborate rehearsal: repeating the word over and over again to give it meaning. This is called semantic encoding. The duration of LTM is a lifetime and the capacity is infinite.
The strengths of the Multi-Store Model are shown through the case study of Clive Wearing. Clive had an accident that resulted in him suffering from brain damage. He was unable to use his Short term memory. This stopped him from making new Long term memories because STM is needed to elaborately rehearse information to make it become LTM’s. However he was still able to recall things from before the accident showing that STM and LTM are 2 separate stores otherwise Clive wouldn’t be able to use any of his memory at all.
On the contrary, a weakness of this model is that it is a lab experiment. Lab studies can lead to demand characteristics. A demand characteristic is a subtle cue that makes participants aware of what