1. Outline Newton's concept of escape velocity including drawing a diagram. (about 1/4 of a page)
Newton's concept of escape velocity shows that when something is launched from a high altitude, when the velocity increases, the objects fall rate would match the curvature of the Earth. If the object is launched with an increased speed, it would be launched directly into space.
2. An analysis of the changing acceleration of a rocket during launch in terms of the law of conservation of momentum and the forces experienced by the astronauts. Include a discussion as well as an analysis using appropriate momentum equations. Explain reasons why rockets accelerate so much. Include an explanation as to why astronauts need to sit in a 'laying down' orientation during launch. Give examples of typical values in your discussion.
3. Discuss issues associated with safe re-entry into the earth's atmosphere on the Earth's surface and the various measure implemented to deal with such issues. Include in your discussion the importance of an optimum angle for safe re-entry for a manned spacecraft into the Earth's atmosphere and the consequences of failing to achieve this angle. As part of your discussion you must also include a description of the mechanism of energy transfers and transformations in terms of the challenges this presents as well as using it as part of the solution.
Satellites that hover in Earth's lower orbits lose more velocity due to the friction that's being created with the outer layers of the atmosphere. When satellites return from space, it is usually rather dangerous because they tend to catch fire on their destination. The only safe way is by making sure the angle of descent is roughly between 5-7 degrees, also that the satellite doesn't gain too much speed and that the satellite has appropriate insulation for the members inside it. There are many things that can affect the satellites safe return home, such as:
Heat: The energy that is withheld by a satellite in orbit has to be lost during its travel back to Earth. The satellite is becoming slower duo to the change in atmosphere, the friction within the energy is turned into a vast amount of heat. This heat cannot be treated but there are ways to make it tolerable by using heat shields that have ablating surfaces, which were used on the Apollo capsules. The heat can also be minimally avoided by sending the satellite on a route that travels longer on its travel back to Earth, therefore slowing the amount of time the energy takes to turn into heat.
4. You are also to present information on the contribution of ONE of the following scientists to the development of space exploration: I have chosen Oberth.
Oberth was born in Sibiu, Romania in 1894. When Oberth was in his youth, he became vastly interested with the famous science-fiction novels, written by Jules Verne, in specific " From the Earth to the Moon " and " Around the Moon ". Jules Verne's novels have greatly influenced Oberth's interest in this field of study, building his very first module rocket at the age of 14. During these experiments, he created the concept of a multi-stage rocket, which is a rocket which has more than one stage, inside each stage consists of its own engines and propellants. However, Oberth lacked the required resources to follow up with this idea.
At the age of 18, Oberth began studying medicine in Germany. However during the time, WWI had