Abstract This report serves to show the findings of lab 11.4. This lab provided datum about the extent of aerobic respiration in both germinating and nongerminating peas. The findings of the experiment proved that germinating peas, or reproductively able peas, use significantly more oxygen than nongerminating, or heat killed, peas, as anticipated by the students performing the lab. Aerobic respiration was necessary for the germinating peas because the oxygen released energy from the peas’ glucose to give fuel for germination. The major conclusion reached by the students was that plants require not only carbon dioxide but also oxygen to live, thrive, and reproduce. The students who performed the experiment already knew that aerobic respiration required oxygen, but the pupils sought to understand the extent of aerobic respiration in plants. Additionally, they wanted to know which factors, such as reproduction or lack thereof, could potentially limit oxygen consumption. Information about aerobic respiration in plants had not been presented to the students; therefore, none of the students knew whether plants required oxygen at all. The students gathered 30 germinating green peas, 30 nongerminating green peas, 10 glass beads, absorbent cotton, 6 KOH pellets, two test tubes, two 2-hole rubber stoppers to fit test tubes, two 500 mL beakers, two test tube clamps, two ring stands, water, rubber tubing, two graduated pipettes, two tubing clamps, black cloth, Brodie manometer fluid, a Pasteur pipette, wax pencil, a watch or timer, and forceps. In one test tube they added the 30 germinating peas. In the other test tube, they added the 30 nongerminating peas. In both test tubes, they added a small wad of the absorbent cotton on top of the peas. In the test tube with germinating peas, the students added the 6 KOH pellets on top of the cotton using forceps. They also added 10 glass beads on top of the cotton in the test tube containing the nongerminating peas. Then, the students stuck one rubber tubing and one graduated pipette through one of the rubber stoppers and repeated the same process with the remaining rubber stopper, graduated pipette, and rubber tubing. After the two rubber stoppers were completed, the students inserted one on the top of one test tube and the other into the remaining test tubes. Using the black cloths, the students then covered the test tubes with black fabric so that no light could get into the test tubes. Then, the students attached one test tube clamp to one ring stand and then attached the remaining test tube clamp to the remaining ring stand. Next the students prepared two room temperature baths by adding 350 mL of water each 500 mL beaker. Afterward, they attached the test tubes containing the peas to each test tube clamp and gently submerged each into the bath water so that the water level was just below the cotton. Then using the Pasteur pipette, the students added 1 drop of Brodie’s manometer fluid to the opened end of the graduated pipette to each of the graduated pipettes and then let both apparatuses sit for 3 minutes. After the 3 minutes were up, the students used a pinch clamp to clamp off the rubber tubing on each test tube and then marked the location of the manometer fluid on each pipette with a wax pencil. They then recorded the location of the manometer…
Chapter 4 Respiration
What is the first stage of the breakdown of glucose, common to both aerobic and anaerobic respiration?
Where does this happen?
Why is ATP required in the first stage of glycolysis?
To phosphorylate the glucose, making it more reactive
What is glucose split into during glycolysis?
2 molecules of triose phosphate
What is the end-product of glycolysis, that feeds into the link reaction?
2 molecules of pyruvate
What is removed from pyruvate in…
When we inhale we take in oxygen and when we exhale we release carbon dioxide which is one of the waste products of our body. When we take in oxygen, it is directed to our lungs from where it enters blood and goes around our body to every organ. Every part of our body and supplies oxygen to them. Organs and parts of our body need this oxygen to give them energy to function. When blood gives oxygen to the body and all the organs, in turn the organs give back carbon dioxide to…
Introduction to cellular respiration and fermentation:
Aerobic Cellular Respiration: is the process that extracts energy from food in the presence of oxygen. The energy is used to synthesize ATP from ADP and Pi. The ATP molecules are then used to supply energy directly to the cell for their energy-demanding activities.
The equation bellow shows how glucose and oxygen are used to release ATP:
C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O ∆G = -2870 KJ/mol
Aerobic cellular respiration can be divided into four…
An Overview of Respiration
I. Metabolism and Cell Respiration
A. Metabolism, the chemical reactions in an organism, has two complementary parts:
1. Synthesis reactions- which combine small, simple organic molecules to form more complex compounds such as, proteins and nucleic acids, for cell growth and maintenance(these reactions consume energy)
2. Decomposition reactions- which release energy by breaking down organic food molecules.
a. Organisms use this energy to make ATP, the major energy…
Photosynthesis and Respiration of Sugars by Yeast
Photosynthesis is the process in which plants make sugar, which stores the energy from the sun into chemical energy. Respiration complements photosynthesis in that it converts the chemical energy made by photosynthesis into organic molecules that may be used by organisms. Two different experiments were performed to test the amount of oxygen gas present during photosynthesis and the rate of respiration of different sugars by yeast. In the first…
-Has cell wall with peptidoglycan
-They can live nearly anywhere on earth (sky to underground)
-Cell wall without peptidoglycan
-Live in environments without oxygen (anaerobic)
-Oldest bacterial form
-Unique lipids in their cell membrane
-DNA sequence is more like other Eukaryotes than other bacterial types (eubacteria)
2. Bacteria are classified into…
carry out its various processes.
Aerobic respiration - A metabolic process involving oxygen in the breakdown of glucose.
Anabolic - Term describing enzyme-catalyzed reactions in a cell that involves the synthesis of complex molecules out of simpler subunits and which uses energy.
Anaerobic respiration - A metabolic process that does not involve oxygen in the breakdown of glucose.
Carbohydrate - A molecular compound containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Subunits are sugars.
Respiration releases energy for cells from glucose.
This can be aerobic respiration, which needs oxygen, or anaerobic respiration, which does not.
During exercise, the breathing rate and heart rate increase. During hard exercise an oxygen debt may build up.
What is aerobic respiration?
Respiration is a series of reactions in which energy is released from glucose. Aerobic respiration is the form of respiration which uses oxygen. It can be summarised by this…
In respiration the energy is released not as heat, but in the form of chemical energy in a compound called ATP (adenosine triphosphate). ATP is built up from ADP and phosphate. So all respiration really does is convert chemical energy stored in glucose into chemical energy stored in ATP.
ATP is a nucleotide, but it also has this other function as an energy storage molecule. So ATP is actually a bigger molecule than glucose, but it is very soluble and the energy it contains can…
For an individual to continue to exercise longer than a few minutes requires the presence of oxygen to provide a continual supple of ATP. This is supplied bu the aerobic energy system.
The oxygen rich blood usually takes a few minutes to arrive to the working muscle for use, so the system is usually the third to kick in.
This system also relies on the supply of glycogen, and fats as the fuel.
It is also known the aerobic glycolysis system.
As there is plenty of oxygen during the…