432689094424500There are many different uses of water in industry such as fabricating, processing, washing, diluting, cooling, or transporting a product; incorporating water into a product; or for sanitation needs within the manufacturing facility. Some industries that use large amounts of water produce such commodities as food, paper, chemicals, refined petroleum, or primary metals. In the home water is used very differently; bathing, in the toilet, washing machine, dish washers, central heating, cooking and others.
One test chemical test for water is to use Cobalt chloride: Cobalt chloride paper is paper soaked in cobalt (II) chloride (CoCl2) solution. It is used to test for the presence of water because it turns from blue to pink when exposed to water. Another test for water is to use Copper Sulphate: Anhydrous copper sulphate is white, when you add water to copper sulphate it turns blue (because it forms hydrated copper (II) sulphate).
Before water is fit for human consumption it is extracted from reservoirs and sent to be treated. The water is first passed through a filter, to take out large objects such as rocks. Smaller particles in the water is removed by adding Aluminium Sulfate which causes the smaller particles to stick together in large pieces and settle down in the filter. Water is then passed through sand and gravel filters which continue to filter the smaller particles and kills bacteria. Chlorine gas is then added, the gas is first bubbled through the water to kill the bacteria that exists in the water. Sodium Hydroxide may be added in the water to prevent the water from being acidic from the chlorine and the water is then safe for human consumption.
Rusting is the reaction of iron with oxygen, which causes the iron to corrode. In order for iron to react with oxygen, water and air must be present. If allowed to react, iron will form hydrate iron oxide with hydrogen. The formula of rust is Fe2O3. xH2O.
-1206504622800003618865382968500Rust can be prevented in many ways: painting- paint creates a barrier which prevents the air or water from coming in contact with the iron/steel object. This is commonly done in car bodies and bridges, electroplating- electroplated with another metal that doesn’t corrode, chromium and tin are commonly used as they are very unreactive. Normally used in food cans, Galvanization- Covering the whole object by a layer of zinc. The zinc provides a barrier to prevent the air and water from coming in contact with the iron/steel, so the zinc is corroded instead of the iron/steel and Sacrificial Protection- this is the idea that metals higher up in the reactivity series will react in preference, so the metal higher in the reactivity series is used as a protective coating, therefor is corroded instead of the iron this coating must be replaced from time to time as the metal finishes corroding, the iron/steel starts to rust again. Often used on ships, or bridge columns.
3267075-39878000The Haber process needs hydrogen and nitrogen. Hydrogen is obtained by reacting methane with steam or through the cracking of oil. Nitrogen is obtained by burning hydrogen in air. When hydrogen is burned in air, the oxygen combines with the hydrogen, leaving nitrogen behind.
Nitrogen and hydrogen will react together under these conditions: a high temperature - about 450ºC a high pressure - about 200 atmospheres (200 times normal pressure) an iron catalyst
In fertilisers nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium are vital to the success of a crop, the nitrogen promote the growth of leaves and vegetation, Phosphorous promotes root growth and Potassium promotes flower and fruit growth.
Ammonia can be produced by a displacement