Essay about P4 P5 M3 D3

Submitted By jm967
Words: 1259
Pages: 6

P4&P5: Plan and carryout a practical investigation in a laboratory to represent a larger scale industrial process of aspirin or alcohol that is carried out by your chosen organisation. (P4&P5)
Extraction of alcohol from beer.
Apparatus & chemicals:
Mashing cylinder - funnel boiler - flame less heater - retort stand - conical flask - moveable stand - fractional column - anti-bumping - condenser - clips - running tab water -250 cm3 beer - ice - metal pot - matches - watch glass - dropper.
The natural process of fermentation puts a limit on alcohol satisfied at about 15%-16%. The process of distillation permits a far higher alcohol content.3 Distillation is the process whereby the caused liquid is heated until most of the alcohol is released as vapour (it has a lower boiling point than water). This vapour is reduced and the resulting liquid is what we normally call 'spirits'. These spirits have far higher alcohol content than fermented drinks. The actual taste and nature of the 'spirit' is determined by the source of the fermentation mixture (i.e. malt, wine, and sugar cane), flavouring materials, and production and storage techniques. The table on 'Alcoholic drinks: a summary' provides additional information on this point. The actual alcohol content of the drinks can vary, as water is usually added to the spirit.
Labelled diagram: thermometer condenser Collection flask

Boiling flask with stir bar water out water in
Heating mental

Method and the difficulties we faced:
The only good way to do it is to boil the beer. Boiling alcoholic beverages, or cooking with them, removes the alcohol (it is steamed, boiled, or cooked away). The problem is the carbonation. When you put the flame to the pot of beer, CO2 will begin to rapidly release, most likely causing a boil over. In order to avoid this, you'll want to de-carbonate the beer first by leaving it at room temperature in an open pot or pan (leave a thin covering of cheesecloth or wax paper to prevent anything from falling into it - but it can't be airtight). After a few hours, the beer's CO2 will have evaporated to the point where boiling won't be an issue.
M3: Analyse the result of the practical investigation, giving their contribution to the organisation.
Equation: Beer alcohol (C2H6O) + water (H2O)
Volume of Beer (Tennenent’s super strong Larger) = 250 cm3
Percentage of alcohol by volume / volume = 9%
Theoretical yield or maximum yield = (9/100)*volume of beer
0.09*250=22.5 cm3 = 22.5 cm3
Volume of alcohol collected by distillation of beer = 14 cm3
(Actual yield)
Percentage yield of alcohol from beer = (Actual yield / Theoretical or maximum yield) * 100 14/22.5*100 = 62.2% yield

D3: explain how the industrial scale differs from the laboratory scale.
Ethanol is manufactured by reacting ethene with steam. The reaction is reversible, and the formation of the ethanol is exothermic.
Only 5% of the ethene is converted into ethanol at each pass through the reactor. By removing the ethanol from the equilibrium mixture and recycling the ethene, it is possible to achieve an overall 95% conversion.
A flow scheme for the reaction looks like this:

The equation shows that the ethene and steam react 1 : 1. In order to get this ratio, you would have to use equal volumes of the two gases.

Because water is cheap, it would seem sensible to use an excess of steam in order to move the position of equilibrium to the right according to Le Chatelier's Principle. In practice, an excess of ethene is used.
This is very surprising at first sight. Even if the reaction was one-way, you couldn't possibly convert all the ethene into ethanol. There isn't enough steam to react with it.
The reason for this oddity lies with the nature of the catalyst. The catalyst is phosphoric (V) acid coated onto a solid silicon dioxide support.
If we use too much steam, it dilutes the catalyst and can even wash it off the support, making it…