Essay on Paediatric and Adolescent Notes

Submitted By 20111223
Words: 1387
Pages: 6

OUTCOMES OF THE UNIT

1. Demonstrate knowledge of the growth & development of the child & the adolescent. (Overall picture)
2. Discuss the differences between the child & the adolescent when considering nursing care of these two groups.
3. Explain the various social & environmental influences, within the context of families, on children & adolescents.
4. Identify & discuss the nursing interventions for common childhood & adolescent illnesses.
5. Discuss appropriate care of the child & their family in a community or hospital setting, including the support necessary for children with disabilities.
6. Explain the importance of positive family relationships, with an emphasis on the role of fathers, in the development & maintenance of child & adolescent health.

Objectives of Lecture 1

1. Describe developmental milestones for the well child from 0-18 years of age.
2. Describe the philosophy of “Family Centred Care”
3. Discuss current societal trends & describe their influence on children
4. Apply theories of human development to pediatric nursing practice
5. Describe the typical physiological development of the newborn, infant, child & adolescent.

Objective 1. Describe developmental milestones for the well child from 0-18 years of age.

Growth, Maturation & Development

8 Principles of Growth & Development
Development is:
1. Is orderly & sequential-
2. is directional - : cephalocaudal (head down) & proximodistal.
3. is unique – each child different
4. is interrelated -
5. Development becomes increasingly differentiated –
6. Development becomes increasingly integrated & complex – learning to drink from cup – hand/eye
7. Children are competent = ”cry for attention”
8. New skills predominate = practicing their skills – crawl to walk to run , jump etc

Growth and Development of the Toddler
12 months
Walks
Helps with dressing
Separation distress (uses mother as secure base) circle of security
One step command with gesture
Immature jargoning own language

15 months
Walks and/or runs
Spoon feeds
One step command without gesture
First word
Mature release of object

18 months
Emerging hand preference
Range of single words
Awareness of self identity “mine”
Early sympbolic play eg. use of dolls/others
Familiar actions in play – what the see – they will play
Uses cup
Independence – want to do things themselves
Points to body parts

24 months
Jumps on 2 feet, kicks ball
Puts 2 words together
Follows 2 step instructions
Runs safely
Helps with dressing, toilet training
Parallel play
Turns pages of a book
Circular scribble with pencil/crayon

Growth and Development of the Pre-Schooler

3 years
Says own name
Plays co-operatively
Pedals tricycle
Walks up stairs
Cuts with toy scissors
Holds pencil near point & copies circle
Asks questions
Matches colours
Joins in make believe play

4 years
Stands on 1 foot & hops
Tripod grasp of pencil, draws + & person with head, trunk, legs, arms & fingers
Relate recent experiences using sentences
Rote counts to 20, objects to 5
Sympathy for others in distress
Recognises own name in print

5 years
Complex motor tasks eg. skipping, walking along a line
Pencil skills for dra3wing a person, copying a triangle & colouring within outlines
Can give name & age
Engage in conversation about a recent or routine past event
Has made a friend

Growth and Development of school aged child
Ages 6 – 7
Rides two-wheel bike
Uses knife, fork, and spoon
Legibly prints letters
Learns to tell time
Learns to read
Able to bathe and dress self
Enjoys games with peers

8-9 years
Plays team sports
Able to use household tools
Understands concept of time
Knows the date and month
Likes competitive games

10-12 years
Eye-hand coordination well developed
Fine motor skills developed
Developing ability for abstract thought
Able to write stories
Rules are important
Interest in opposite sex
Desire for more…