Assisting the Umpires / Referees- Most professional sports in the United States have long used instant replay and other high-tech aids to help referees make the right call. Gridiron has used video replay systems to check referees' calls for many years. Basketball referees use replay systems to make sure players are shooting within the time allotted by the shot clock. In international cricket, the third umpire has been used, one sitting off the ground with access to TV replays of certain situations to advise the central umpires. The umpires out on the field are in communication via wireless technology with the other umpire. The third umpire is also asked to adjudicate on run out decisions, which he makes without consultation with the two central umpires. One sport that has resisted the use of high-tech assistance is football. Replays could be used to decide off-side decisions, whether a ball passes over the goal line, and clarify penalty decisions.
Hawk-Eye Technology- Hawk-eye is the name of a computer and camera system which traces a ball's trajectory. It is being used in international cricket and tennis, and many other sports are also looking at making use of this technology. The system is also being trialled in soccer as part of the goal line assessment. The Premier League of Football in the UK has agreed to the introduction of goal-line sensors after being given approval by football's rule-makers. The system being developed by the UK Company Hawk-Eye, would give a definitive decision on whether the ball had crossed the line. The Hawk Eye uses a camera taking 600 frames a second on the goal-line, with the information is analysed by computer and sent to the referee's headset or a device on his wrist.
Tennis- it is now standard at the major tennis tournaments for a line review system to be in place, with players given power to review contentious line calls. It is powered by the Hawk-Eye ball tracking system. See more about Hawk Eye for Tennis
Football- Soccer is looking at joining the 21st century, looking at various technologies for the goal line to determine if the pass passes over the line or not. See more about