Parenting and Education during Early Childhood
Parenting styles are persistent behaviors that a caregiver gives to one or more children. Caregivers are normally the parent(s) but can be a baby sitter, such as a relative or a nanny. All children are different and naturally, the caregiver will treat each child accordingly. In this paper, team A will examine various forms of caregiving, parenting styles and early childhood education. First, this paper will evaluate the different types of parenting styles and their influence on development during infancy and early childhood. Second, a least two different kinds of caregiving will be compared and contrasted. Also the positive and/or negative impacts on development during infancy and early childhood will be compared and contrasted. Finally, this paper will discuss how early childhood education has evolved and its impact on cognitive development in early childhood.
The type of discipline a parent uses can have a dramatic effect on a child’s development. The way a parent disciplines their child can also determine the type of relationship that is built. There are several different approaches a parent can take towards disciplining a child that can determine a child’s mood and attitude when they become an adult. There are four different types of parenting styles: Authoritarian Parenting, Authoritative Parenting, Permissive Parenting, and Uninvolved Parenting. Each parent uses a different disciplining method and their style depends on what they feel is best for their child. The authoritarian parent sets rules for their child with the expectation that they will follow them without exception. The child of an authoritarian parent has no say or is not involved in the problem solving challenges. Authoritarian parents are highly demanding and directive, but not responsive. They are obedience- and status-oriented, and expect their orders to be obeyed without explanation, (Baumrind, 1991). When children ask their authoritarian parents why, they normally answer with, “Because I said so”. There is normally no reason for the rules being set. Although the children normally follow the rules that their authoritarian parents set, they risk developing low self-esteem. They may become hostile or aggressive because their focus is mainly on being upset at their parents rather than learning how to solve the problem.
Authoritative parents are demanding and responsive. Although they have rules that they expect their children to follow, exceptions to the rules are sometimes allowed. Authoritative parents set the rules and explain to their children the reason for the said rule. They are more open and willing to consider their child’s feelings. Consequences are used instead of punishments. Authoritative parents often push positive consequences to encourage good behavior. Children that have authoritative parents show signs of being happy and are more likely to become successful. They are known to make good decisions and grow up to become responsible adults. Authoritative parents are very supportive of their children. They want their children to be assertive as well as socially responsible, and self-regulated as well as cooperative, (Baumrind, 1991).
Permissive parents do not discipline their children. They are lenient and sometimes step in when there is a serious problem with their children. Sometimes the children of submissive parents have to deal with consequences of their actions; however, the parents often justify their actions by having the attitude that “kids will be kids.” Permissive parents are more of a friend to their children rather than parents. Children of permissive parents often have challenges academically. They are also likely to have behavior problems and do not accept authority lightly.
Uninvolved parents can sometimes be considered as neglectful parents. They often do not