How is the gene transmitted? (Identify the pattern of inheritance shown by this condition, giving examples to support your thinking)
There are several genes that may affect Parkinson’s patients
Genetic causes only represent a small fraction of all Parkinson’s cases
Researchers have found one gene that produces a protein, which is necessary to break down defective proteins in the brain
In the gene called a parkin is altered in any way it cant perform its task
This allows the defective proteins to build up, killing dopamine neurons and causing early-onset Parkinson's disease
Although research on this gene is important the gene plays a role in less than 1 percent of all Parkinson’s cases
In addition, researchers have identified a number of genes that, when mutated, result in various forms of Parkinson's disease. For example, a gene called parkin creates a protein, also called parkin that helps metabolize defective proteins in the brain. Investigators believe that defects in this gene result in an accumulation of defective proteins that can be fatal to neurons. Autopsies have also revealed clumps of a protein called alpha-synuclein (Lewy bodies) in patients' brain cells.
Outline the human body system or systems affected by this condition and how they normally work
Parkinson’s disease results from the death of brain cells in the substantia nigra, a small area deep within the brainstem that produces the neurotransmitter, dopamine.
The brain is the most affected area in Parkinson’s
The Substantia nigra: A region of the brain that controls movement. Controls muscular movement by releasing the neurotransmitter dopamine
A neurotransmitter is a chemical that transports electrical signals between brain cells.
Dopamine is needed to carry nerve messages from one brain cell to the other
When brain cells die in the substantia nigra not enough dopamine is released.
Without dopamine signals cannot travel from the Sn brain cells to cells in other parts of the brain
The instruction brain cells need to move muscles do not reach their targets
Muscular movement becomes weaker and more erratic
Basic movements do not occur properly like walking writing and reaching for objects
What happens to the person during the course of the condition? (Describe the body’s response to the genetic effects, how does the body functioning differ from that of a non- affected person)
Characterized by tremors and difficulty in walking
Movements and coordination are affected
Usually develops between the age of 50 and 60 years of age and slowly develops over time
Gradual loss of muscular control, difficulty walking (gait control)
Non-motor symptoms include depression and anxiety
Shaking (tremor) the classic tremor associated with PD is called "pill-rolling tremor." The movement is like rolling a pill between the thumb and forefinger. The movement occurs about three times per second.
Slowing down of movements
Muscle stiffness or ridgety
Problems with posture and balance cannot stand the way they used to any more
Depression, speak issues
Emotional changes like fear anxiety irritability insecurity
Treatment (Describe the treatment of treatment options. How successful are these treatments?)
Provide patients with a drug called Levodopa, which is a compound that’s converted into dopamine in the brain
As the disease develops however it decreases in deficiency
In 1985, Israeli researcher Joussa Youdim found that a compound called deprenyl slows the progress of Parkinson's disease; this drug has been used with considerable success on patients.
These drugs produce dyskinesia--uncontrollable…