Parkinson's Disease has no relation to neither creed nor race (Lees et al. 2009). The definite cause of Parkinson's remains as elusive as it did when first diagnosed in 1817(Lees et al. 2009). In spite of the elusive nature of Parkinson's, significant pathological and genetic clues have been found (Lees et al. 2009). Parkinson's is now regarded as a sporadic disorder, meaning that it is not inherited, but arises via mutation in single and scattered cases (Lees et al. 2009). Most sporadic disorders have a significant amount of environmental causes or trigger, however, only a handful have been associated with reported cases of Parkinson's Disease (Lees et al. 2009). Parkinson's, much like dementia, is a neurodegenerative disease (Lees et al. 2009). For all neurodegenerative diseases, ageing is a major risk factor, although 10% of those with Parkinson's are below 45 years of age (Lees et al. 2009). Interestingly, those who have never smoked tobacco are twice as likely to develop Parkinson's as well as men and postmenopausal women who are not taking hormone replacements (Ascherio et al. 2003). Those who do not ingest or take very low quantities of caffeine, have an increased risk of developing Parkinson's Disease (Ascherio et al. 2003). This could be related to the role of dopamine in reward pathways rather than to any neuroprotective effect of tobacco or caffeine (Evans et al. 2006). Caffeine is an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist, other compounds in this class have shown potential as anti-parkinsonian drugs or methods of preventative intervention (Evans et al. 2006). Contrary to popular belief, there are very weak associations with head injury, lack of exercise, and rural living affiliated with Parkinson's Disease (Evans et al. 2006). There have been advancements in drawing a link between certain pesticides and Parkinson's (Elbaz et al. 2009). A current study used scientific methods to find correlations between different classes of pesticides and Parkinson's Disease (PD) (Elbaz et al. 2009). The experiment was conducted in France and consisted of two main groups; those with PD and those without (Elbaz et al. 2009). Of those two groups, there were multiple subgroups dependant on the participant's history and affiliation with herbicides, fungicides, and insecticides (each subgroup acted as a classification for other pesticides found within them) (Elbaz et al. 2009). After rigorous amounts of testing, surveys, and background checks, it was found that a dose-effect relationship could be found most often in men with older onset Parkinson's (Elbaz et al. 2009). It was also noted that the relationship between herbicides or fungicides and PD was not significant (Elbaz et al. 2009). Organochlorines (form of insecticide), were the only pesticide to remain associated with PD in men overall and in men with older onset Parkinson's Disease, after adjusting for other pesticide families in multivariate analyses (Elbaz et al. 2009). The scientists went on to conclude that professional pesticide use, in a population with high exposure, was associated with PD and that these finding could lead to further toxicological studies as the findings of this study dealt exclusively with professional exposure (Elbaz
in DSM 5, ADHD is often referred to as hyperactivity and categorized by inability or difficulty to maintain task-oriented behavior. Children express impulsivity, excessive or exaggerated motor activity, such as haphazard running or fidgeting ( Nigget al., 2005).One of the examples of ADHD would be the child that have an issue of paying attention not just in school but at home as well, additionally difficulty in organizing and paying attention to the detail as well as excessive talking and ability…
Agonist Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease: A Literature Review and Response
September 5th 2012
Parkinson’s disease is a progressive disorder that results in both psychomotor and cognitive deficiencies. Accepted treatment for Parkinson’s is to center on the need to increase dopamine as well as promote transmission in dopamine pathways. Medications used to treat the psychomotor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease, dopamine agonists, have been researched…
their beneficial qualities are ample, they can also become the cause of neuronal death.
There are various functions of microglia in a healthy brain. For instance, microglial cells act as phagocytes, which involve a direct, cell-to-cell contact (Banati et al., 1993). There are two main types of phagocytic events a microglial cell can undergo: The first one recognizes apoptotic cellular materials such as phosphatidylserine (PS), and in turn stimulates an anti-inflammatory response while the second one involves…
Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong, China
Physiotherapy Department, United Christian Hospital, Kowloon East Cluster, Hospital Authority, Hong Kong, China
a r t i c l e i n f o
a b s t r a c t
Received 21 May 2014
Received in revised form
15 July 2014
Accepted 22 July 2014
Kinesiology tape (KinTape) is a therapeutic tape without much understanding of its mechanism. KinTape
claims to increase cutaneous stimulation…
authors, you do not need to list them all. You can use “et al” (meaning “and others‟) after the first author’s surname. However, in the Reference List at the end of the essay, all the authors should be listed. See the “Wearmouth” example in section 1 below.
Books in general
Always use the title page and the copyright page information, rather than the book’s cover, to find these details.
(i) Author(s) (surname followed by initial(s))
(ii) (Year of publication) (in round brackets)…
information on the examination.
Candidates commonly inquire if review books, courses, or similar
exam preparation offerings are of value. Many examinees feel
that brief courses enhance recall of previously acquired
knowledge and improve one=s approach to multiple-choice
examinations in general. But it is quite unlikely that anyone will
learn, for example, biostatistics or toxicology, in a review course
or from a review CD or other media. Board and exam
committee members do not participate…
Steroid Hormones and Risk
of Breast Cancer
Barbara S. Hulka, M.D., M.P.H.,* Edison T. Liu, M.D.,t
and Ruth A. Lininger, M.D., M.P.H.$
Background. More than three decades of epidemiologic studies have identified numerous risk factors for
breast cancer. These factors have been estimated to account for only 20-25% of disease occurrence. However,
among these factors, several are related to sex steroid
hormones: sex of the affected individuals [women), early
age of menarche and late…
maximize net health beneﬁt, at decision time, any decision
maker will (or should) ask himself: Is the current evidence
base regarding the clinical and cost effectiveness of this
medical technology or treatment sufﬁciently certain for the
L. Steuten et al.
decision I’m about to make today? And what are the
consequences of an uncertain, and thus potentially wrong,
decision? Would postponing the decision to await further
evidence increase or decrease the net beneﬁt of healthcare
Arthur Prochazka, PhD
Following this chapter the reader will be able to:
1. Understand the basic principles of operation of neuroprostheses (NPs).
2. Appreciate the historical development of NPs.
3. Assess the main benefits and limitations of existing NPs.
4. Recommend the type of NP that might benefit a particular person.
5. Evaluate new NP technologies as they evolve.