A. Disease/Disorder Definition
A fracture is a complete or incomplete disruption in the continuity of bone structure and is defined according to its type and extent.
B. Pathophysiological Process
There are two major types of hip fracture, intracapsular and extracapsular. Intracapsular fractions involve the neck of the femur and extracapsular fractions are fractures of the trochanteric region and the subtrochanteric region. Fractures of the neck of the femur may damage the vascular system that supplies the blood to the head and neck of the femur, forcing the bone to become ischemic.
Extracapsular intertrochanteric fractures have an excellent blood supply and heal more rapidly but extensive soft tissue damage usually occurs at the time of injury. Is it not uncommon for the fracture to be comminuted and unstable.
Low bone density caused by osteoporosis is a high cause of hip fracture in older adults. Fractures in this population are most often a result of a fall from s standing height. In individuals with weak bones, a hip fracture can occur by standing on a leg and twisting.
D. Signs and Symptoms
Pain in hip, groin or medial side of the knee
Muscle spasms that resist positioning to a neutral position
Lack of ability to bear weight
Deliriums as a result of stress of trauma, sleep deprivation and medications. Delirium can lead to dehydration and malnutrition.
Blood clots in your legs or lungs
Urinary tract infection
Further loss of muscle mass, increasing your risk of falls and injury
F. Medical/Surgical Treatment and Management
Surgical treatments may include open or closed reduction of the fracture and