Patho Study Guide 3 Essay

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NURS 3203 – Pathophysiologic Processes – Module Three Study Guide

For all lab values, I will give you the normals in parentheses.

BLOOD AND LYMPHATIC DISORDERS
1. General Signs and Symptoms of anemia
Increased RBC destruction
Decreased RBC production
Signs
Exhaustion
Hemoglobin deficit= oxygen deficit
Cell mechanism and reproduction diminished
Tachycardia- high heart rate
Peripheral (Away from) Vasoconstriction- hands and feet cold (decrease pulse, blue finger nails) trying to conserve blood
Fatigue- not enough oxygen
Pallor- pale
Dyspnea and syncope- difficulty breathing& dizziness
Decreased regeneration of epithelial cells
Severe anemia may lead to angina and CHF

2. Differentiate between the causes and treatments of each anemia
Iron Deficiency
Causes
Insufficient iron impairs hemoglobin synthesis
Liver disease, blood loss, and malabsortption
GI disorder
Very common in women and vegetarians
Diagnosis
Low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels
Low Serum ferritin (what iron is attached to when its store) and iron
Treatment
Treat underlying causes
Iron supplements
Iron-rich foods constipation
Pernicious Anemia (Vitamin B12 deficiency)
Causes
Not enough B12 from dietary insufficiency- very rarely a cause
Genetic factor
Malabsortption due to chronic gastritis or alcoholism
Gastric surgery- lose cells that absorb B12
Diagnosis
Low hematocrit and RBC’s appear macrocytic-big (H&H)
Bone marrow is hyperactive
Low B12 serum level
Presence of gastric atrophy- decreases
Treatment
Oral supplements
Vitamin B12 injections prompt diagnosis
Aplastic Anemia
Causes
Impairment or failure of bone marrow
May be temporary or permanent
Often idiopathic but possible causes include:
Toxins
Viruses
Genetic abnormalities
Diagnosis
Blood counts indicate pancytopenia (low blood cell count and low white cell count)
Anemia (Low RBC count)
Leukopenia (Low white count)
Thrombocytopenia (Low platelet count)
Bone marrow biopsy may be required
Increased risk of infection
With Thrombocytopenia bruise easily
Petchiae- bruises
Treatment
Identification of causes and prompt treatment needed for bone marrow recovery
Removal of any none marrow- suppressants
Blood, bone marrow, and stem cell transfusion
Hemolytic Anemia’s
-Results from excessive destruction of RBC’s or its components
Sickle cell Anemia
Causes
Autosomal recessive disorder
More common in individuals of Africans
Not seen until 12 months of age
Genetic mutation- abnormal hemoglobin
O2 levels are low
Gall stones
Infections
Hyperbilirubremia
Jaundice
Signs and Symptoms
Severe pain in joints stomach due to ischemia of tissue and infarctions
Vascular occlusions and infarctions (Blockage Vessels)
Delay growth and development
Congestive heart failure
Injections
Diagnosis
Blood test
Prenatal DNA analysis
Treatment
Avoid strenuous activities and high altitude dehydration
Infections
Exposure to extreme cold
Other treatments
Thalassemia**
Less normal hemoglobin made and accumulation of RBC- damaging chains
Genetic defects
Splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and Hyperbilirubremia
Growth and development are impaired
Abnormal RBC and high erythropoietin
Polycythemia
Primary polycythemia Vera
Factors- increased RBC, WBC, Platelet production
Eryropoietin secretion is low
Secondary erythrocytosis
Factors- increased RBC
Response to prolonged hypoxia usually chronic
Eryropoietin is high
Manifestations
Polycythemia problems with blood volume
Increased platelets somewhat abnormal
Increased blood pressure
Blockage of blood flow- heart attack/ stroke
Diagnosis
Increase cell count
Increased H&H
Hyper cellular bone marrow (articularcytes)
Acid in blood
Treatment
Identify causes
Drug or radiation
Suppression of bone marrow activity
Periodic phlebotomy (Pull blood off patient)
Blood clotting disorders: excessive bleeding
Thrombocytopenia
Hemophilia
Vitamin K deficiency
Defective platelet infection/ production
Cancer
Hematoma (Blood in…