Essay about Pd Final

Submitted By NewPerson3
Words: 1790
Pages: 8

1. Major Bones, Muscles, Joints and Joint Actions Involved


The major bones involved in the golf swing are as follows:

➢ Scapula (shoulder bone) ➢ Humerus (upper arm) ➢ Carpals (wrist) ➢ Tibia / Fibula (lower leg) ➢ Radius (lower arm) ➢ Vertebral Column ➢ Ulna (lower arm) ➢ Femur (upper leg)

Most of these bones are located around the arm, hand or shoulder region. However, there are still many bones in the lower body that function to hold the body still, e.g. the spine. Other bones such as the bones in the hip area, also work to turn and rotate the body during the downswing & upswing motions. The major bones involved in this area are:

➢ Femur (upper leg) ➢ Pubis (hip) ➢ Sacrum (hip)


The major muscles involved in the golf swing are as follows:

➢ Biceps ➢ Triceps ➢ Gluteus maximus ➢ Latimus dorsi

As well as the muscles above, there are also muscles that function as “stabilisers” of the body. These following muscles hold the abdomen and chest in position during the swing: ➢ External obliques ➢ Rectus abdominals ➢ Erector spinae


The major joints involved in the golf swing are: ➢ Elbow joint ➢ Wrist joint ➢ Shoulder joint ➢ Knee Joint ➢ Vertebra ➢ Ankle Joint Joint Actions in the golf swing

There are multiple joint actions in the golf swing, actions such as: ➢ Flexion – The angle at the elbow joint is decreased during the up phase of the golf swing. (note #4 of figure 1) ➢ Extension – The angle at the elbow joint is increased during the down phase of the golf swing. (note #4-5 of figure 1) ➢ Abduction – The arms move away from the midline of the body during the up phase of the golf swing. (note#3/7 of figure 1) ➢ Adduction – The arms head towards the midline of the body during the down phase of the golf swing. (note #6 of figure 1) ➢ Eversion – The rear foot faces away from the body at the finish of a swing (note # 8 of figure 1) ➢ Rotation – The vertebra rotates during the swing, which allows the torso to follow in unison with the club (note accumulation of all phases in figure 1).

2. The Physical Fitness Components Needed to Optimise Performance

The motion of the golf swing requires numerous physical fitness components to be executed to perfection, for example on a competitive base. This includes both skill and health related components. These components include:

o Power o Co-ordination o Flexibility o Balance

These four components contribute to a successful golf swing


Power is crucial in the golf swing to exert strength which is needed to hit the ball with a force during the short time of the downswing. The increase of power, accompanied with good timing and precision, will result in a longer shot. Power can also be measured in small amounts. For example a controlled use of power can push the ball a small distance like in mini putt putt golf.


The golf swing can be difficult to co-ordinate for many people. It requires an even, long and well-timed movement that is not often easily achieved without lots of training. This co-ordination is a skill that takes time to master and is a very important part of a successful golf swing.


Flexibility is another major aspect of the golf swing. It will allow the athlete to be able to complete a full range of motion or stretch required. Flexibility can also help in the maintenance of posture, which will