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Core 2
Training and performance

Types of training and performance

Aerobic capacity is the body’s ability to produce energy in the presence of oxygen, without being easily fatigued and/ or has the ability to continue to work in a state of fatigue.
Involves training the cardiovascular system.
A high aerobic capacity positively transfers to anaerobic capacity and speed.
Most athletes try and improve there aerobic capacity

Continuous training
Means long stop training for a minimum of 20 minutes up to several hours.
In to 70/78% zone
Combination of training including long/low and short/ high

Fartlek training
Speed play
Puts stress mainly on the aerobic energy system due to the continuous nature of the exercise.
The intensity of the exercise or speed of the exercise caries
Last for 45 minutes
Mostly with running or cycling or swimming

Interval training
The process of training using the running of short sprints followed by long distance training or vice versa.
Completing a number of prescribed bouts of exercise, each followed by a recovery period.
Progressive overload refers to the gradual or staffed introduction of training stimulus that exceeds the level the athlete has become accustomed to.
Circuit Training
Involves a series of exercise that are performed one after the other with limited rest between

Results of aerobic training
A higher max VO2
Greater efficiency at carry oxygen to the working muscles, due to an enlargement heart
Increased blood volume
Increased utilisation of fat as an energy source


Intervals of short duration and high intensity can be decided to target both anaerobic energy systems.
Changing the duration of the interval but keeping the effort at 95/100%
The anaerobic threshold is the intensity at which an athlete must work under to receive an aerobic training effort.
Strength, power and speed are the major anaerobic components for athletic anaerobic performance

Speed, acceleration and agility
Maximum speed is often limited to the athletes technique
Speed training must be performed early in a training session, before an athlete becomes tried

Sports Medicine
How are sport injuries classified and managed?

What’s to classify sports injuries?

Sports injuries can be classified based on the injury history, cause and type
A new injury is called a primary injury
An injury arising from a previous injury, due to poor treatment or it hasn’t healed properly is known as a secondary injury

A direct injury occurs when an object or person comes in contact with another person
An indirect injury is an injury that occurs as a result of an internal force in the body
A soft tissue injury is an injury relating to body tissue, muscles, tendons and ligaments
A hard tissue injury relating to bones and teeth
An overuse injury is an injury caused by a continual or repetitive force on the body during exercise.

Soft tissue injuries

Inflammatory response
Step 1
Initial tissue damage: when an injury occurs to body tissue (e.g. ligament, tendon or muscles) some form of damage takes place.
Step 2
Bleeding of the capillaries
Capillaries are damaged, resulting from bleeding at the injured site
Step 3
Clot formation
When bleeding stops, blood clots and forms a bruise
Step 4
Swelling of tissue
Tissue swells as a result of fluid build-up at the injured site
Step 5
Secondary tissue damage
Further damage to tissue can be caused as a result of movement to the injury.
Step 6
Removal of blood clot and tissue swelling
The healing process in the body starts to break down clot and, as a result the swelling of tissue reduced
Step 7
Healing of tissue
In conjunction with the removal of the blood clot and tissue fluid, healing of the damaged tissue occurs. If tissue does not heal, a build up of scar tissue can restrict movement.
Step 8
Regaining function
Normal functioning