HOW ARE PRIORITY ISSUES FOR AUSTRALIA’S HEALTH IDENTIFIED
Measuring health status
To identify health priories issues within a population you need to understand the health status of the population and its subgroups
Health Status = Current state of health for an individual, group or population
Tools used – Infant/Mortality, morbidity, life expectancy
To create accurate and comprehensive information on the health status of Australia a range of information need to be accessed to derive this status
Roles of Epidemiology
The study of disease in groups or population through the collection of data and information, to identify patterns and causes.
PREVALENCE: Number of cases of a disease that exist in a defined population at a point in time
INCIDENCE: Number of new cases of disease occurring in a defined population over a period of time
Used by government and health related organisation to obtain an idea of the health status of a nation. As well to identify
Information can come from survey such as National health survey, Injury Surveillance data, hospitalisation records, GP consultations, PBS records, Nation Survey of Mental Health, Medicare data, RTA incident records.
What can epidemiology tell us?
Epidemiology can identify specific factors relation to health; Assess the level and distribution of the health of populations Measure the level, distribution and influence of determinants Monitor and appraise health interventions Evaluate the performance of the health system Understand the interrelationship of all above.
These can help answer valuable questions such as How healthy is the populations, is the health improving or declining? Which groups are disadvantaged? Key health issues for which we need to plan and prioritise? How can health trends help us to prepare for the future ?
(EG: High risk factors for lifestyle disease, thus increase in likelihood of the prevalence of the disease)
Measure of epidemiology (mortality, infant mortality, morbidity, life expectancy)
Provide information about the cause of death and number of deaths for a specified population over a specified period of time
Can appear as raw number but often express per 100,000
Number of death of infants in the first year
Expressed as per 1000
Rate of illness and disease
Number often is often expressed for a specified disease or condition in particular population group
Average number of years of predicted life a person has remaining at a specified age
This is assuming current mortality patterns remain the same
Most commonly calculated at birth, but also at 30, 65 & 85.
Who uses these measures?
Epidemiological information can be used by a variety of people and agencies, which can assist their decision-making, planning and implementation of health programs and strategies.
Dr’s, NGO’s, government departments, ect, all use this information
Depo. of Health and Ageing
Mortality and Morbidity
Inform promotion and prevention strategies
Health Status Info health Expenditure
NSW Depo. of Education
Promote safety guidelines for school sport
Application of health services
Incidence of disease
Plan staff training in order to meet needs
Application of medicines
Attitudes to health
Develop and market pharmaceutical products
Data around Health determinants
Groups at risk
Inform decisions about preventive action
Do they measure everything about health status?
Information such as wellbeing, emotional cost, quality of life, social determinants are not easily measured or as a statistic
Doesn’t always show significant variations in the health status among sub population groups Eg, Indigenous & Non indigenous
Not accurately indicate