Pdhpe Notes Hsc Essay

Submitted By danieldrak1995
Words: 6030
Pages: 25

Measuring Health Status

Role of Epidemiology
Epidemiology the study of disease in groups of populations through the collection of data and information, to identify patterns and causes *
Epidemiology considers the patterns of disease in terms of:
Prevalence (number of causes of disease in population at a 
specific time)
Incidence (number of new cases of disease occurring in a 
population)
Distribution (the extent)
Apparent causes (determinants and indicators) 

Epidemiology commonly uses statistics on:
Births
Deaths
Disease incidence
Injury incidence
Money of health care
Disease Prevalence
Contact with health care
Hospital use
Injury incidence
Work days lost 


* Limitations of Epidemiology:
Statistics do not always show the significant variations in the 
health status among population subgroups
Might not accurately indicate quality of life in terms of peoples 
level of distress, impairment, disability or handicap
Cannot provide the whole health picture
Fail to explain ‘why’ health equities persists
Don’t account for health determinants 
 *
Measures of Epidemiology 
•
Mortality

Refers to the number of deaths in a given population from 
a particular cause and or over a period of time
In Australia, the main causes of death are cardiovascular diseases, cancers and respiratory diseases *
Infant Mortality
Refers to the number of infant deaths in the first year of live, per 1000 live births
This measure is considered to be the most important indicator of the health status of a nation and can also predict adult life expectancy
o Infant mortality can be divided into:
Neonatal (deaths in the first 28 days of life)
Post Neonatal (deaths in there remainder of the year)
The decline in the infant mortality rate over recent decades can be attributed to:
Improved medical diagnosis and treatment of illness
Improved public sanitation
Health education Morbidity
Is the incidence or level of illness, disease or injury in a given population
Morbidity measures and indicators include:
Hospital use
Doctor visits and Medicare statistics
Health surveys and reports
Disability and handicap
Life Expectancy
Is the length of time a person can expect to live. More specifically, it refers to the average number of years of life remaining to a person at a particular age, based on current death rates
Improvements in life expectancy since the 1970s have resulted from a reduction in death rates at all ages
These improvements can be attributed to:
Lower infant mortality
Declining death rates for cardiovascular disease
Declining overall death rates from cancer
Fall in deaths from traffic accidents * *

* Identifying priority health issues

Social Justice the value that favors the reduction or elimination of inequity, the promotion of inclusiveness of diversity, and the establishment of environments that are supportive of all people

P Priority Population
P Prevalence of Condition
P Potential for Prevention and Early Intervention
S Social Justice Principles
C Costs for the Individual and Community

Social Justice Principles
Equity
Fair allocation of resources and entitlements without discrimination
Access
The availability of health services, information and education
Participation
The empowerment of individuals and communities to be involved in planning and decision making for good health
Rights
Equitable opportunities for all individuals to achieve good health

Priority Population Groups
Australia is characterised by its diversity and multiculturalism
The identification of priority population subgroups with inequitable health status is important for determining health priority issues
It allows health authorities to:
Determine the health disadvantages of groups within the population
Better understand the social determinants of health
Epidemiological information reveals that:
Indigenous populations have much higher death…