PDHPE Trial Revision: Factors Affecting Performance

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PDHPE Trial Revision

Factors Affecting Performance

Energy Systems

Criteria for analysis
Lactic Acid
Fuel Source
ATP – About 90 grams or 1-2 secs and Creatine Phosphate
Glycogen through anaerobic glycolysis
Carbohydrates, fat and even protein
Efficiency of ATP production
Energy readily available but supply is very limited. Recovers quickly
Provides ATP quickly but requires large quantities of glucose
Extremely efficient in metabolism of fuel and provision of energy
System duration
System lasts approx 8-10 sec at maximal effort
System lasts 30 secs at max, 3-4 mins at 70-80%
Intermittent exercise 4-6 hours, continuous (marathon) 2hrs
Causes of fatigue
Inability of system to resynthesise ADP from CP because CP stores exhausted
Lactic Acid accumulation exceeds lactic acid excretion
Glycogen supplies running out
By products
No fatiguing by-products but heat is produced
Lactic Acid
Carbohydrate and water
Process and rate of recovery
50% of CP stores replenished in 1st 30 sec, most ATP and CP restored in 2 min
Process takes about 30 minutes to an hour
Depends on duration of use, could be days

Principles of Training

The six most important principles of training for performance improvement are
1. Progressive Overload
2. Specificity
3. Reversibility
4. Variety
5. Training Thresholds
6. Warm up/cool down
Progressive Overload implies that the load needs to be increased as we become comfortable at the existing level of resistance
As the body becomes familiar with a particular level of training stress, it adapts to it and further training at this level fails to sufficiently stress the system
Specificity focuses on the closeness of the relationship between what we do in training and what we are required to do in the game
The specificity principle implies that greatest gains are made when activity in the training program resembles the movements in the game or activity
Metabolic Specificity refers to identifying the energy system or systems most appropriate to the activity and developing these systems in training
Reversibility implies that fitness, strength and flexibility will be lost once training ceases
You must be actively participating in the training program to maintain the training benefits
Losses in aerobic capacity are slower than those experienced in strength/power programs
The principle of variety suggests that the training program needs to include a diverse range of challenging skills to ensure that motivation remains high
Mental wellbeing is vital to maximise effort in physical training
Threshold refers to the level of intensity
The lowest level of intensity that will produce a training effect is the “aerobic threshold”
The highest level is the “anaerobic threshold” where lactic acid accumulates to quickly
The “Lactate Infection Point” is a point beyond which a given power output cannot be maintained
The zone between the thresholds is the ‘training zone’, the area where we need to be working to improve performance
Warm up and cool down are essential to any training program and particularly for the prevention of injury
An effective warm up should be maintained for at least 10 minutes
The cool down is the reverse of the warm up
It helps to disperse and metabolise lactic acid concentration and to replenish the bodies energy systems

Performance Elements

Performance elements include important game components such as decision making, strategic development and tactical development
We often see to much emphasis placed on the practice and technique instead of how to perform the skills in the game
A Game-Centred Approach aims to focus on the whole game and all components, rather than a sequence of basic skills assembled within a game format
The emphasis is on integrating thinking and learning rather than skill development in isolation
Decision Making
Decision making is best improved by having to make decisions in performance like situations
Productive decision making is best achieved through;
Observation –