X-rays are waves which are produced by sudden stops of high-speed electrons when they eventually hit a target plate. X-rays have a typical wavelength of 10−10
m. X-rays are now used for many different things due to their penetrating power.
X-rays are produced with an evacuated tube. Firstly a filament is heated by the flow of an electric current. Negatively charged electrons are given off, this is known as thermionic emission, and they accelerate towards anodes, which are positively charged. The electrons acceleration increases their kinetic energy. Once the electrons hit a target a fraction of the kinetic energy within the electrons transforms into x-rays. Most of the kinetic energy is transformed into heat. The anode remains cool as circulating oil or water keeps it cool. X-rays pass out through a small window in the lead shielding.
Increasing the filament current results in having more electrons produced and colliding with the anodes allows more x-ray photons to be produced. X-rays spread out as they travel. The intensity of an
X-ray drops with every square of distance. Doubling the distance of an object decreases the intensity of X-ray causing it to fall to a quarter of its original value. X-rays can also be absorbed or scattered by surrounding atoms. Whenever an X-rays absorbed the intensity of it decreases. The thicker the substance is that is absorbing the x-rays cause the intensity to decrease.
I = I 0e−µx
When the intensity of the X-rays is reduced to half the original value, by the absorbing material, the thickness of the material is known as the half-thickness. This is used with various thicknesses of metals and also G-M tubes.Attenuation is known as the process involving reduction, within an x-ray it is known as the reducing of intensity of an x-ray beam, this helps reduce the strength of diseased organisms - attenuated bacteria is usually used as a vaccine agent.
Annets.F, Foale.S, Hartley.J, Hocking.S, Hudson.L, Kelly.T, Llewellyn.R, Musa.I,
Applied Science Level 3
. England: Pearson Education Limited. p363-370. Kaiya Glynn
x12 = I n 2µ
The intensity of all electromagnetic radiations obey the inverse square laws, this includes
X-rays. The square law suggests that the further away that…