Periodic Table 31 Essay

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Periodic Table of the Elements
Chapters 4 & 10 (31)
Chapter 5 (32)
Interactive periodic table

Why is the Periodic Table important to me?

• The periodic table is the most useful tool to a chemist.
• You get to use it on every test.
• It organizes lots of information about all the known elements.

Pre-Periodic Table Chemistry …
• …was a mess!!!
• No organization of elements. • Imagine going to a grocery store with no organization!! • Difficult to find information. • Chemistry didn’t make sense. Alternative periodic tables

Dutch Periodic Table

115
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106

Strong, Journal of Chemical Education, Sept. 1989, page 743

116

117

118

Benfey’s Periodic Table

Dmitri Mendeleev
• Russian
• Invented periodic table
• Organized elements by properties • Arranged elements by atomic mass • Predicted existence of several unknown elements
Dmitri Mendeleev

Modern Periodic Table
• Henry G.J. Moseley
• Determined the atomic numbers of elements from their X-ray spectra
(1914)
• Arranged elements by increasing atomic number

1887 - 1915

The Periodic Table
On your periodic table, draw the “staircase” starting from Boron.

1

1
IA
1

H

1.00797

2

3

Periodic Table

2
IIA

13
IIIA

4

Li

Be

11

12

5

6.939 9.0122
3

Na

Mg

22.9898 24.305
4

19

20

3
IIIB
21

4
IVB

5
VB

22

23

K

Ca

Sc

Ti

37

38

39

40

6

Rb

85.47
55

Cs

Sr

6
VIB
24

7
VIIB
25

8

26

9
VIIIB
27

10

28

V

Cr

Mn

Fe

Co

Ni

41

42

43

44

45

46

Y

Zr

Nb

Mo

Tc

Ba

La

Hf

Ta

W

Re

88

89

104

105

106

107

87.62 88.905 91.22 92.906 95.94
56
57
72
73
74

[99]
75

132.905 137.34 138.91 178.49 180.948 183.85 186.2
7

87

Fr

[223]

Ra

[226]

6

15
VA
7

16
VIA
8

17
VIIA
9

B

C

N

O

F

13

14

15

16

17

He

4.0026
10

Ne

10.811 12.0112 14.0067 15.9994 18.9984 20.179

39.102 40.08 44.956 47.90 50.942 51.996 54.9380 55.847 58.9332 58.71
5

14
IVA

18
VIIIA
2

Ac

[227]

Ku

[260]

11
IB
29

Cu

12
IIB
30

Zn

Al

Si

P

S

Cl

18

Ar

26.9815 28.086 30.9738 32.064 35.453 39.948
31

Ga

63.54

65.37

65.37

47

48

49

32

33

34

35

36

Ge

As

Se

Br

Kr

50

51

52

53

54

72.59 74.9216 78.96 79.909 83.80

Ru

Rh

Pd

Ag

Cd

In

Sn

Sb

Te

Os

Ir

Pt

Au

Hg

Tl

Pb

Bi

Po

I

Xe

At

Rn

101.07 102.905 106.4 107.870 112.40 114.82 118.69 121.75 127.60 126.904 131.30
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
190.2
108

192.2 195.09 196.967 200.59 204.37 207.19 208.980 [210]
109

[210]

[222]

http://www.chemsoc.org/viselements/pages/periodic_table.html

Modern Periodic Law: When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, their physical and chemical properties show a periodic pattern.

Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement
• Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals 1
IA
1

18
VIIIA
2
IIA

13
IIIA

14
IVA

15
VA

16
VIA

17
VIIA

2

3

4

5

6

7

3
IIIB

4
IVB

5
VB

6
VIB

7
VIIB

8

9
VIIIB

Metals

10

11
IB

12
IIB

Nonmetals

Metals, Nonmetals, and Semimetals
• Nonmetals (right of “staircase”)
- Poor conductors of heat and electricity
- Not lustrous
- Can be gases, liquids, or solids
- Solid nonmetals are brittle
- Tend to gain electrons in reactions with metals to form negatively charged ions
- Share electrons in reactions with other nonmetals Copyright © 2007 Pearson Benjamin Cummings. All rights reserved.

Metalloids or semi-metals
• The elements that lie close to the “stair-step” line • Examples: Boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony, and tellurium.
-Possess some characteristics of metals/some of nonmetals

Groups or families- columns
Elements with similar chemical and physical properties are in the same column
-Groups

Groups/
Families






1A – Alkali metals
2A – Alkaline Earth metals
7A – Halogens
8A – Noble gases

Across the Periodic Table


Periods: Row across the periodic table
(rows 1-7)



These elements’ valence electrons are in the same principal energy levels.

1
IA
1

2
IIA

2nd Period

2

3

3
IIIB

4
IVB

5
VB

6
VIB

4

5

6th Period
6

7

13…