Persistence, of Power, Elites, and Institutions and Missing the Story The two articles Persistence, Power, Elites, and Institutions and Missing the Story both concentrate on the fact that the impact of institutions on economic outcomes depends on the interaction between de jure political power, political institutions, and de facto political power, the investments and organizations of different groups. In the first article by Acemoglu and Robinson, these ideas are developed into a model consisting of two groups, the elite and the citizens. Economy’s institutions are chosen by the elite or the citizens depending on who has more political power. Political power allocates the distribution of de jure power and de facto power within an economy. Due to the fact that the elite typically have smaller numbers and of course more money than the citizens, they find increased advantages in investing in de facto practices rather than de jure practices, uncovering that the amount of de facto political power of the elites is an equilibrium outcome and responds to incentives. In the model there is a “contest” between the elite and the citizens, and political institutions determine who has greater political power. Due to the fact that the elite class may invest more in the de facto political power, they can change de jure practices with their investments, and an invariance may occur. An invariance is when the changes in political power are based by the increased use of de facto power, or how incentives in society fuel certain groups to use lobbying, bribery, and extralegal force to achieve their political objectives. Two results of the model were found to be quite important. First, when the elite use less repressive methods, equilibrium institutions are more likely to favor the citizens. Secondly, a greater democratic advantage for citizens may result in the elite investing more to increase their de facto power. The model also displayed that there may be greater inefficiency in democracy than in nondemocracy because of the increased investments in de facto political power by the elite in the democracy, which is socially damaging and costly. In the excerpt, Missing the Story, “deregulation,” or new rules favoring big business interests and going against any sort of consumer…
since human nature is inherently self-serving
those with more resources exploit for self-gain
stratification, if not class, inevitable
plays directly into group interests.
**Pareto – “Circulation of elites”
critical social conflict among elites; within
democratic society elites= lions, foxes
lions- conservative, self interests, force.
foxes- liberal, authoritative, persuasive
periodically, exchange social leadership
(assumes democratic electoral system in place)
weary of leadership…
some remaining alert for a potential hazard, and others more relaxed, was gathered inside the entrance to the MGM Grand, the doors of which was lined with crystal, and decorated with platinum specks.
The architects of this modernized castle, an elite group of highly educated individuals, spared no expense at the erection of the structure. The 50 ton, 45 feet tall bronze statue of a lion, which resides in front of the entrance, is one of many examples that demonstrate the architects immense amount…
Historical context of the communist manifesto
Persistence of monarchies – a king held power in most of europe old days still with europeans
Persistence of old classes – social classes associated with monarchy was still alive (aristocracy and peasantry) most people were still peasant aristocrats were wealthiest class not capitalist
Rise of new classes – middle class constituted at most two and a half percent of the population.
Technology – use of…
situation. In contrast to this social stratification theory, we can examine the class theory of Karl Marx, who defines "class" in a completely different way. Marx proposed that there are only two classes in capitalist society, owners of capital (elite), and producers of capital (popular masses). Marx believed these are by nature involved in a basic and historical conflict.
The proponents of each theory are attempting to make a model of society in an attempt to understand the inequalities between…
government that “lacked the power to tax and depended on the contributions from the states for its
expenditures” (Loubert, Aart. "Sovereign Debt Threatens The Union: The Genesis Of A Federation.").
The weak Articles of Confederations called upon the political elite to meet and delegate over a change
to the Articles toward better unity between the states. Three political greats from each state, excluding
Rhode Island, were elected to attend the Constitutional Convention held in secrecy during the month of…
comparative wealth inequality: national Gini indexes for wealth
main causes for differences in economic inequality between the US and other developed societies
government policy and ideology
The Upper Class and the Power Elite
1. Economic bases for defining the upper class
how much annual income
who makes high income
capital, the capitalist class
the factor of separation between the wealthy and the rest
who are the wealthy
recent trends in the wealthy class…
Among the most obvious failed intellectual enterprises of the past two decades have been various predictions of China’s coming implosion. Whether by social explosion, elite fragmentation, or hard landing, the assumption was that the existing system would have to break. Now, the Chinese government is no longer kicking the can down the road on reform. They’re making changes, and so there’s much more uncertainty within China—and more potential for both upside and downside.
Reforms might prove…
also want to lead healthly
productive lives, and raise children just like everyone else. According to Chad Griffin, “(The
Gay community) has created the foundation to remove dozens of the state’s marriage bans. We
can’t tolerate the persistence of two Americans when it comes to equality.”(7) So I believe
America can tolerate same sex marriage and flourish as a country because of it.
1. American Psychological Association…
Still, Messenger's hand on the trigger flinches. "To analyze The Godfather is to become something of a metaphorical Corleone family member, seeing from cosa nostra(reconfigured as popular fiction) just what that outside world of elite fiction and criticism looks like from different discriminations and considerations within popular fiction" (33). To maintain his legitimacy, so to speak, Messenger erects an elaborate and entirely appropriate intellectual scaffolding, including (among…
ough poverty. Violence and
racial structure creates a gap that keeps them from overcoming obstacles in order to become
successful. The class system in both Guatemala and America are similar because it is most
beneficial for the Elite, while paving a way of destruction for the poor. People do not understand
that poverty has not only worsen but has increased, all because of greed and power. The
indigenous undergo cruel circumstances because countries and people want to be dominant or…