Conscious- Freud’s term for thoughts or motives that a person is currently aware of or is remembering
Example: thoughts, feelings
Preconscious- Freud’s term for thoughts or motives that are just beneath the surface of awareness and can be easily brought to mind.
Example: memories, knowledge
Unconscious- Freud’s term for though or motives that lie beyond a person’s normal awareness, which still exert great influence.
Example: fears, selfish needs, immoral sexual desires
Freud’s 5 psychosexual stages see diagram 6
Know the differences of ID, Ego & superego:
ID- is made up of innate, biological instincts and urges. It is immature, impulsive and irrational. It is totally unconscious and serves as the reservoir of mental energy. Concept is known as pleasure principle
Example: the id is like a new born baby it wants what it wants when it wants it.
Ego- is the 2nd part of psyche when a child grows. Is responsible for planning, problem solving, reasoning and controlling the potentially destructive energy of the ID. It corresponds to the self, our conscious identity. Task is to channel and release the ID’s energy in ways that are compatible with the external world. It is responsible for delaying gratification when necessary. Ego operates on reality principle
Superego- a set of ethical rules for behavior. Develops from internalized parental and social standards. Operates on morality principle. Violating its rules results in feeling guilt.
Example: when the ego doesn’t satisfy the ID and superego, anxiety slips into conscious awareness because anxiety in uncomfortable people avoid it through defense mechanisms.
Also see diagram of box
Know the 3 differences of consciousness
See above and see diagram 2 the ice burg
Trait theory- define and what does it mean:
Trait- relatively stable and consistent characteristics that can be used to describe someone
Modern trait theory- the five factor model (FFM) the trait theory of personality composed of openness, conscientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness and neuroticism.
See diagram 3 OCEAN
Example see diagram 4
Rogers’s says the most important component of personality is the self- what a person comes to identify as “I” or “me”. Today followers of Rogers use the term self-concept Rogers’s term for all the information and beliefs that individuals have about their own nature, qualities and behavior. Rogers’s believed that poor mental health and maladjustment developed from a mismatch, or incongruence, between the self-concept and actual life experiences.
Example see diagram 5
Define unconditional positive regard
Unconditional positive regard- Rogers’s term for caring, nonjudgmental attitude toward a person with no contingencies attached. A warm and caring environment in which a child is never disapproved of as a person. Example in response to a child that is angry and hits his sister, the parent acknowledges that it is the behavior that is unacceptable and not the child
Behavioral genetics researches feel that after the research was done that about…