Date of Experiment: 4/3/14
Due Date: 4/11/14
According to Robert Boyle, all acids have a sour taste and are corrosive. Acids change the color of certain vegetable dyes, such as Litmus, from blue to red. Acids lose their acidity when they are combined with alkalies. Boyle also stated that alkalies feel slippery, they change the color of Litmus from red to blue. Alkalies become less alkaline when they are combined with acids. Boyle defined Alkalies as substances that consume or neutralize acids. Acids lose their sour taste and ability to dissolve metals when they are mixed with Alkalies. In my opinion, I have deduced that acids and bases were defined based on the sourness of their product. Nowadays, the PH scale is a quick and successful way to determine if a chemical is an acid or a base. http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/genchem/topicreview/bp/ch11/acidbase.php
Distinguishing the acid-base theories of Arrehenius, Bronsted-Lowry, and Lewis.
Arrehenius- Acids are substances which produce hydrogen ions in a solution. Bases are substances which produce hydroxide ions in solutions. Bronsted-Lowry- an acid is a proton donor. A base is a proton acceptor. Hydroxide ions are still bases because they accept hydrogen ions from acids and form water. Lewis- An acid is an electron pair acceptor. A base is an electron pair donor. The different theories put together by these intelligent scientists go hand in hand in describing acids and bases. There are so many theories needed because each one helps aid a person in determining whether the substance they have is an acid or a base. Each belief is a refined way of telling a chemist the correct way of distinguishing chemicals.http://www.chemguide.co.uk/physical/acidbaseeqia/theories.html
A proton donor is any compound which can easily lose its protons. This substance can be considered an acid. A proton acceptor is a base, an anionic substance that accepts a proton during an acid-base reaction. Conjugate acid-base pairs are two molecular species that easily transfer a hydrogen ion between them. Neutralization is a chemical reaction in which an acid and a base react to form a salt. www.dictionary.com Chemist do not typically believe in the existence of hydronium ion because the chemical can not be physically present without the accompany of water. Therefore, hydronium can not be a pure substance. http://chemistry.about.com/od/waterchemistry/a/Hydronium.htm
“Strong” Acids and Bases
Acids and bases that are completely ionized when dissolved in water are called strong acids and strong bases. Examples of strong acids are Hydrogen Halides, Oxyacids of Halogens, Sulfuric acid, and Nitric acids. These are considered strong acids because they are 100% ionized in their solutions. Examples of strong bases are Sodium hydroxide, Potassium hydroxide, Cesium hydroxide, and Calcium hydroxide. These examples are also completely ionized. A common example of a strong acid is Hydrochloric acid (throw-up). Household examples of strong bases are Windex and Bleach. Strong acids and bases are important to chemical industries because acids are substances which react with a base and together they act to eliminate stains and odors. Examples of weak acids and bases are vinegar and lime juice. For the non-chemist at home, an example of the PH level of weak acids and bases are something that your body can handle if consumed. http://www.science.uwaterloo.ca/~cchieh/cact/c123/stacids.html
PH Scale The name PH stands for potential of Hydronium (from my notes). If the chemical is an acid then it’s PH will be less than 7. If the chemical is neutral the PH will be 7. If the chemical is a base the PH will be more than 7 (from my notes).
It is very…