Phase 1 You are What You Eat SalazarG Essay

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You Are What You Eat

An Overview of Proteins, Carbohydrates and Lipids
SCI101-1404B-01
Professor: Carma Cook
Phase 1 – Assignment

Gina Salazar

What is a Protein?
 Proteins play a critical part in the human body
 Does the majority of the work in human cells
 Necessary for structure, function, and regulation of tissue and

organs

 Contain large amounts of amino acids
 Number of amino acid in protein structure determines function

of the protein

 Any error in protein molecules can result in disease

What is a Protein?
Main functions of protein:
 Antibodies: to fight viruses and bacteria to protect the body
 Enzyme: carry out most all of the chemical reactions in the body  Messenger: these proteins coordinate biological processes in the body
 Structural Component: proteins provide structure and support such as muscle
 Transportation and storage: Proteins act as a vehicle to carry atoms and molecules throughout the body

What is a Protein?
 There are many types of protein, for example:
1.

Hair and Nails

2.

Muscles

3.

Enzymes

4.

Antibodies

What is a Protein?
 Only a couple protein types are visible to the naked eye:

Hair
 Fibrous protein
 Made of alpha-keratin protein
 Alpha-keratin also found in wool, finger nails, and feathers

Muscle
 Actin and Myocin are the proteins that make up muscles
 This enable movement such as blinking, swallowing, running, etc.
 40% of the weight of a healthy human body consists of muscle

What is a Protein?
 Many proteins are small and are not visible to the naked eye,

such as:

Enzymes
 Small molecular proteins that aid in food digestion
 Maltase is an enzyme that helps breakdown sugars (see image)
 Can be found in saliva and in the small intestine and pancreas
Antibodies
 Aids in warding off disease and viruses (antigens)
 Attaches to the antigen to help guide it out of the body
 Often used in anti-venom to reverse effects of animal/insect venom What is a Protein?
 Protein consumption is important to the human body
 There are many sources of protein

High-Quality Protein:
 Contain higher levels of amino acids
 Examples: lean meats, nuts, legumes, eggs
Low-Quality Protein:
 Have higher fat content and lower levels of amino acids
 Examples: red meats, cheeses, butter, sausages

What is a Carbohydrate?
 Necessary nutrient for the body
 Main source of energy for the body
 Carbohydrates change to sugar which provide energy to organs
 Liver stores excess sugar for later use
 Two type of carbohydrates are:
 Simple carbohydrates:
 Fruits, vegetables and milk products
 Can come from refined foods and added sugar
 Complex carbohydrates:
 Breads, grains, legumes and starchy vegetables
 Complex carbs are high in fiber

What is a Carbohydrate?
 Starch and Cellulose Carbohydrates serve different purposes

Starch:
 Consumable by humans
 Found in food products like vegetables, grains, legumes
 Humans have enzymes that can convert starch to sugar to provide energy
 Simple molecular structure

Cellulose:
 Not consumable by humans due to enzymes inability to break down
 Plant-based and edible to some insects and animals
 Used in textiles such as rope and clothing
 Complex molecular structure

What is a Lipid?
 Lipids come from some plants but mostly animals
 Fats, steroids and cell membranes are types of lipids
 An average size body will contain 22 lbs of lipids

Important to the body:
 Lipids contain twice as much energy as carbohydrates
 Helps sustain a body without food ingestion for several days
 Protects the body from extreme temperatures (cold)

What is a Lipid?
There are several types of lipids that serve different purposes, such as:
 Triglycerides – a fat that can be saturated or unsaturated. Not

water soluble.

 Steroids – such as cholesterol, testosterone/estrogen, and

vitamin D2

 Waxes – a fatty acid that you can find in the ear or on bird

feathers. Provides protection from external elements.

What is a Lipid?
 There…