Introduction – When preparing to do business with people from those cultural groups different than your own, it is wise to invest the time in order to understand their cultures and their needs in terms of not only your products and services, but their business customs, nonverbal communication meanings, and employ an interpreter so there are no misunderstandings in the use of language for the particular country. Geert Hofstede, a social psychologist and operator in the international environment since 1965, began the comparison of nations as a staff member for IBM and later as a visiting professor for an international business school in Switzerland. The first four values of the Geert Hofstede dimensions of national culture are: Power Distance (PDI), Individualism versus Collectivism (IDV), Masculinity versus Femininity (MAS), and Uncertainty Avoidance. The fifth dimension, added in 1991, is Long-Term Orientation (LTO); the sixth dimension, added in 2010 in the 2010 edition of Cultures and Organizations, is Indulgence versus Restraint (IND). Power Distance is the degree to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (family) accept and expect power to be distributed equally. Power and inequality are basic facts of any society, but some are more equal than others. Individualism versus Collectivism is the extent to which individuals are integrated into groups. The individualist will look after oneself and/or immediate family. The collectivist will be integrated into cohesive groups and look after the extended family members in exchange for loyalty.
Phase 2 Individual Project Masculinity versus Femininity refers to the allocation of the emotional roles of the two genders, which is also another basic issue for any society where a variety of solutions are found. In some countries, women’s values vary less among societies than men’s values, and men’s values from one country to another include a dimension from very assertive and competitive to modest and caring (similar to women’s values). Uncertainty Avoidance is concerned with a society’s tolerance for insecurity and uncertainty in regards to feeling either comfortable or uncomfortable in structured situations. Unstructured situations are those that are different the usual. Those countries, whose cultures avoid uncertainty, tend to be more emotional and driven by inner nervous energy. Those countries whose cultures accept uncertainty appear to be more tolerant of opinions that are different from what they are accustomed to. Long-term Orientation oriented societies adopt practical virtues focused on future rewards (saving, adaptation). On the other end of the spectrum, short-term orientation societies adopt virtues that relate to the past and present (national pride, respect for tradition, etc.). Indulgence versus Restraint: indulgence means that the society “allows relatively free gratification of basic and natural human drives related to enjoying life and having fun”, (Minkov’s World Values Survey, 2010). The Hofstede models of dimensions of national cultures has been relevant in the practice of many areas of human social life, public and business fields, and in education and health care. Analysis of the cultural similarities and differences in Mexico, China, Israel, and the United Arab Emirates versus the United States as the basis. I will be using Geer Hofstede’s 6 Dimensions for my comparisons.
United States – Mexico -
Power Distance = 40 Power Distance = 81 Individualism = 91 Individualism = 30
Masculinity = 62 Masculinity = 69 Uncertainty Avoidance = 46 Uncertainty Avoidance = 82
Pragmatism = 26 Pragmatism = 24
Indulgence = 68 Indulgence = 97
With a score of 81, Mexico is a hierarchical society or revealing inbuilt inequalities, domination, subordinates require being told what to do, and the best person in charge is a compassionate autocrat. A score of 30 reveals Mexico is thought of